Inverse association between programmed death ligand 1 and genes in the VEGF pathway in primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Richard W Joseph, Mansi Parasramka, Jeanette E Eckel-Passow, Dan Serie, Kevin Wu, Liuyan Jiang, Krishna R Kalari, R. Houston Thompson, Thai H Ho, Erik P Castle, John Cheville, Eugene D Kwon, E Aubrey Thompson, Alexander Parker

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Abstract

Increased angiogenesis and tumor-induced immune evasion are two mechanisms by which clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) proliferate and metastasize; however, the relationship between these pathways in human ccRCC is poorly understood. We conducted a nested case-control study using 98 archived tumor samples from patients diagnosed with primary ccRCC between 1990 and 2006, half of which were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as either programmed death ligand 1 (PDL-1)-positive or PDL-1-negative. RNAs were extracted from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor slides and the expression of the VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and PDL-1 genes was quantified. We assessed the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) by IHC for CD3, and then analyzed the relationship among VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, CD3, and PDL-1. When analyzed as a continuous variable, PDL-1 protein expression by IHC inversely correlates with the expression of the three VEGF-related genes: VEGFA (r = -0.23; P = 0.01), VEGFR1 (r = -0.34; P < 0.001), and VEGFR2 (r = -0.23; P = 0.01). When dichotomized, the PDL-1-positive cohort trended toward a lower expression of VEGFA (fold change = 0.72; P = 0.056) and VEGFR1 (fold change = 0.69; P = 0.057). In addition, there was a significant and positive relationship between the presence of TIL as assessed by IHC for CD3 and PDL-1 by IHC (r = 0.25; P = 0.015), and there was a trend toward an inverse relationship between TIL and VEGFA gene expression (r = -0.18; P = 0.089). In conclusion, this is the first demonstration of an inverse association between the angiogenesis and PDL-1 pathways in tumor samples from primary ccRCC, and this relationship may be related to the immunosuppressive effects of VEGF signaling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)378-385
Number of pages8
JournalCancer immunology research
Volume1
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2013

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Renal Cell Carcinoma
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Ligands
Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes
Immunohistochemistry
Genes
Tumor Escape
Neoplasms
Immunosuppressive Agents
Paraffin
Formaldehyde
Case-Control Studies
RNA
Gene Expression
Proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

@article{ccfbdfd805a44658a1431a208e4bbf1a,
title = "Inverse association between programmed death ligand 1 and genes in the VEGF pathway in primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma",
abstract = "Increased angiogenesis and tumor-induced immune evasion are two mechanisms by which clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) proliferate and metastasize; however, the relationship between these pathways in human ccRCC is poorly understood. We conducted a nested case-control study using 98 archived tumor samples from patients diagnosed with primary ccRCC between 1990 and 2006, half of which were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as either programmed death ligand 1 (PDL-1)-positive or PDL-1-negative. RNAs were extracted from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor slides and the expression of the VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and PDL-1 genes was quantified. We assessed the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) by IHC for CD3, and then analyzed the relationship among VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, CD3, and PDL-1. When analyzed as a continuous variable, PDL-1 protein expression by IHC inversely correlates with the expression of the three VEGF-related genes: VEGFA (r = -0.23; P = 0.01), VEGFR1 (r = -0.34; P < 0.001), and VEGFR2 (r = -0.23; P = 0.01). When dichotomized, the PDL-1-positive cohort trended toward a lower expression of VEGFA (fold change = 0.72; P = 0.056) and VEGFR1 (fold change = 0.69; P = 0.057). In addition, there was a significant and positive relationship between the presence of TIL as assessed by IHC for CD3 and PDL-1 by IHC (r = 0.25; P = 0.015), and there was a trend toward an inverse relationship between TIL and VEGFA gene expression (r = -0.18; P = 0.089). In conclusion, this is the first demonstration of an inverse association between the angiogenesis and PDL-1 pathways in tumor samples from primary ccRCC, and this relationship may be related to the immunosuppressive effects of VEGF signaling.",
author = "Joseph, {Richard W} and Mansi Parasramka and Eckel-Passow, {Jeanette E} and Dan Serie and Kevin Wu and Liuyan Jiang and Kalari, {Krishna R} and Thompson, {R. Houston} and Ho, {Thai H} and Castle, {Erik P} and John Cheville and Kwon, {Eugene D} and Thompson, {E Aubrey} and Alexander Parker",
year = "2013",
month = "12",
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doi = "10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0042",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "1",
pages = "378--385",
journal = "Cancer immunology research",
issn = "2326-6066",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Inverse association between programmed death ligand 1 and genes in the VEGF pathway in primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma

AU - Joseph, Richard W

AU - Parasramka, Mansi

AU - Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E

AU - Serie, Dan

AU - Wu, Kevin

AU - Jiang, Liuyan

AU - Kalari, Krishna R

AU - Thompson, R. Houston

AU - Ho, Thai H

AU - Castle, Erik P

AU - Cheville, John

AU - Kwon, Eugene D

AU - Thompson, E Aubrey

AU - Parker, Alexander

PY - 2013/12/1

Y1 - 2013/12/1

N2 - Increased angiogenesis and tumor-induced immune evasion are two mechanisms by which clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) proliferate and metastasize; however, the relationship between these pathways in human ccRCC is poorly understood. We conducted a nested case-control study using 98 archived tumor samples from patients diagnosed with primary ccRCC between 1990 and 2006, half of which were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as either programmed death ligand 1 (PDL-1)-positive or PDL-1-negative. RNAs were extracted from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor slides and the expression of the VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and PDL-1 genes was quantified. We assessed the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) by IHC for CD3, and then analyzed the relationship among VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, CD3, and PDL-1. When analyzed as a continuous variable, PDL-1 protein expression by IHC inversely correlates with the expression of the three VEGF-related genes: VEGFA (r = -0.23; P = 0.01), VEGFR1 (r = -0.34; P < 0.001), and VEGFR2 (r = -0.23; P = 0.01). When dichotomized, the PDL-1-positive cohort trended toward a lower expression of VEGFA (fold change = 0.72; P = 0.056) and VEGFR1 (fold change = 0.69; P = 0.057). In addition, there was a significant and positive relationship between the presence of TIL as assessed by IHC for CD3 and PDL-1 by IHC (r = 0.25; P = 0.015), and there was a trend toward an inverse relationship between TIL and VEGFA gene expression (r = -0.18; P = 0.089). In conclusion, this is the first demonstration of an inverse association between the angiogenesis and PDL-1 pathways in tumor samples from primary ccRCC, and this relationship may be related to the immunosuppressive effects of VEGF signaling.

AB - Increased angiogenesis and tumor-induced immune evasion are two mechanisms by which clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) proliferate and metastasize; however, the relationship between these pathways in human ccRCC is poorly understood. We conducted a nested case-control study using 98 archived tumor samples from patients diagnosed with primary ccRCC between 1990 and 2006, half of which were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as either programmed death ligand 1 (PDL-1)-positive or PDL-1-negative. RNAs were extracted from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor slides and the expression of the VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and PDL-1 genes was quantified. We assessed the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) by IHC for CD3, and then analyzed the relationship among VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, CD3, and PDL-1. When analyzed as a continuous variable, PDL-1 protein expression by IHC inversely correlates with the expression of the three VEGF-related genes: VEGFA (r = -0.23; P = 0.01), VEGFR1 (r = -0.34; P < 0.001), and VEGFR2 (r = -0.23; P = 0.01). When dichotomized, the PDL-1-positive cohort trended toward a lower expression of VEGFA (fold change = 0.72; P = 0.056) and VEGFR1 (fold change = 0.69; P = 0.057). In addition, there was a significant and positive relationship between the presence of TIL as assessed by IHC for CD3 and PDL-1 by IHC (r = 0.25; P = 0.015), and there was a trend toward an inverse relationship between TIL and VEGFA gene expression (r = -0.18; P = 0.089). In conclusion, this is the first demonstration of an inverse association between the angiogenesis and PDL-1 pathways in tumor samples from primary ccRCC, and this relationship may be related to the immunosuppressive effects of VEGF signaling.

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