International consensus diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

Dean M. Wingerchuk, Brenda Banwell, Jeffrey L. Bennett, Philippe Cabre, William Carroll, Tanuja Chitnis, Jérôme De Seze, Kazuo Fujihara, Benjamin Greenberg, Anu Jacob, Sven Jarius, Marco Lana-Peixoto, Michael Levy, Jack H. Simon, Silvia Tenembaum, Anthony L. Traboulsee, Patrick Waters, Kay E. Wellik, Brian G. Weinshenker

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1540 Scopus citations

Abstract

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory CNS syndrome distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS) that is associated with serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG). Prior NMO diagnostic criteria required optic nerve and spinal cord involvement but more restricted or more extensive CNS involvement may occur. The International Panel for NMO Diagnosis (IPND) was convened to develop revised diagnostic criteria using systematic literature reviews and electronic surveys to facilitate consensus. The new nomenclature defines the unifying term NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD), which is stratified further by serologic testing (NMOSD with or without AQP4-IgG). The core clinical characteristics required for patients with NMOSD with AQP4-IgG include clinical syndromes or MRI findings related to optic nerve, spinal cord, area postrema, other brainstem, diencephalic, or cerebral presentations. More stringent clinical criteria, with additional neuroimaging findings, are required for diagnosis of NMOSD without AQP4-IgG or when serologic testing is unavailable. The IPND also proposed validation strategies and achieved consensus on pediatric NMOSD diagnosis and the concepts of monophasic NMOSD and opticospinal MS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)177-189
Number of pages13
JournalNeurology
Volume85
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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