The cause of intermediate uveitis remains unknown. It is important to rule out other causes of the condition before initiating therapy. Many patients presenting with a mild form of the disease and who have good visual acuity may not require treatment. Those with decreased vision because of inflammation or cystoid macular edema may require periocular injections or systemic administration of corticosteroids (Fig. 2). Those who develop recalcitrant disease and those who experience severe side effects from the steroid therapy may require other immunosuppressive agents. Close monitoring of systemic side effects is required. Laser photocoagulation or cryotherapy of the peripheral retina is useful in patients who develop neovascularization of the vitreous base, in those who are not responsive to periocular injections, and in those who develop severe side effects from corticosteroids. This should be considered before starting systemic immunosuppressive agents. Pars plana vitrectomy with or without cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation is indicated in patients with marked vitreous debris, cystoid macular edema, and in those who develop a vitreous hemorrhage.
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