Inhibin and epithelial membrane antigen immunohistochemistry assist in the diagnosis of sex cord-stromal tumors and provide clues to the histogenesis of hypercalcemic small cell carcinomas

Maureen A. Riopel, Elizabeth J. Perlman, Jeffrey D. Seidman, Robert J. Kurman, Mark E. Sherman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are a morphologically diverse group of neoplasms that can mimic the appearance of other ovarian tumors. Because the treatment and prognosis of sex cord-stromal tumors differs substantially from those of other ovarian neoplasms, the development of an immunohistochemical panel to support the diagnosis of the former group of tumors would be useful. In this report, the utility of immunostaining for inhibin α, epithelial membrane antigen, MIC2 gene protein product, and keratin in the differential diagnosis of sex cord-stromal tumors was assessed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. In addition, the immunohistochemical staining pattern of ovarian small cell carcinomas (SCCs), hypercalcemic type, was analyzed in an attempt to clarify the histogenesis of these tumors. Thirty- two (97%) of 33 granulosa cell tumors (GCTs), 10 (91%) of 11 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs), and 4 (8%) of 51 carcinomas showed inhibin α immunopositivity. None of the 3 lymphomas, 5 carcinoids, 6 dysgerminomas, or 12 SCCs showed inhibin α positivity. Eighteen (55%) GCTs, 6 (55%) SLCTs, 6 (12%) carcinomas, and 7 (58%) SCCs showed MIC2 gene expression. None of the GCTs and only one SLCT showed epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) positivity, although 92% of surface epithelial carcinomas and 75% of SCCs were immunoreactive. These data suggest that detection of inhibin immunoreactivity in an ovarian tumor that is EMA-negative provides both sensitive and specific support for the diagnosis of a sex cord-stromal tumor. Because SCCs generally stain for EMA but net for inhibin, it appears that SCCs probably represent a variant of surface epithelial tumor rather than a type of sex cord-stromal tumor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)46-53
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Volume17
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1998
Externally publishedYes

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Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors
Mucin-1
Inhibins
Small Cell Carcinoma
Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor
Immunohistochemistry
Granulosa Cell Tumor
Neoplasms
Carcinoma
Dysgerminoma
Carcinoid Tumor
Keratins
Paraffin
Ovarian Neoplasms
Formaldehyde
Lymphoma
Differential Diagnosis
Coloring Agents
Staining and Labeling
Gene Expression

Keywords

  • Granulosa cell tumor
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inhibin
  • Leydig cell tumor
  • MIC2 gene
  • Ovary
  • Sertoli
  • Small cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

Inhibin and epithelial membrane antigen immunohistochemistry assist in the diagnosis of sex cord-stromal tumors and provide clues to the histogenesis of hypercalcemic small cell carcinomas. / Riopel, Maureen A.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Seidman, Jeffrey D.; Kurman, Robert J.; Sherman, Mark E.

In: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 01.1998, p. 46-53.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are a morphologically diverse group of neoplasms that can mimic the appearance of other ovarian tumors. Because the treatment and prognosis of sex cord-stromal tumors differs substantially from those of other ovarian neoplasms, the development of an immunohistochemical panel to support the diagnosis of the former group of tumors would be useful. In this report, the utility of immunostaining for inhibin α, epithelial membrane antigen, MIC2 gene protein product, and keratin in the differential diagnosis of sex cord-stromal tumors was assessed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. In addition, the immunohistochemical staining pattern of ovarian small cell carcinomas (SCCs), hypercalcemic type, was analyzed in an attempt to clarify the histogenesis of these tumors. Thirty- two (97{\%}) of 33 granulosa cell tumors (GCTs), 10 (91{\%}) of 11 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs), and 4 (8{\%}) of 51 carcinomas showed inhibin α immunopositivity. None of the 3 lymphomas, 5 carcinoids, 6 dysgerminomas, or 12 SCCs showed inhibin α positivity. Eighteen (55{\%}) GCTs, 6 (55{\%}) SLCTs, 6 (12{\%}) carcinomas, and 7 (58{\%}) SCCs showed MIC2 gene expression. None of the GCTs and only one SLCT showed epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) positivity, although 92{\%} of surface epithelial carcinomas and 75{\%} of SCCs were immunoreactive. These data suggest that detection of inhibin immunoreactivity in an ovarian tumor that is EMA-negative provides both sensitive and specific support for the diagnosis of a sex cord-stromal tumor. Because SCCs generally stain for EMA but net for inhibin, it appears that SCCs probably represent a variant of surface epithelial tumor rather than a type of sex cord-stromal tumor.",
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