BACKGROUND: Subjects with normal body mass index but high body fat percentage have higher cardiovascular risk than subjects with normal weight and low fat mass. However, the association of fat distribution and lean mass with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) among nonobese apparently healthy individuals has never been assessed.
METHODS: In 136 nonobese volunteers (mean age = 45±9 years; 57% women) without manifest cardiovascular disease, cfPWV was measured by applanation tonometry. Fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
RESULTS: In univariate analysis, total fat (r = 0.17; P <0.01), trunk fat (r = 0.27; P <0.01), and trunk/total fat ratio (r = 0.32; P <0.01) were correlated with cfPWV. After adjustment for age and mean arterial pressure, only central fat distribution (trunk/total fat ratio) was significantly associated with cfPWV. In the fully adjustment model, there was a significant interaction between fat distribution and lean mass. When the study sample was grouped by fat distribution and total lean mass medians, subjects with central fat distribution and low lean mass (group 4) had higher log-transformed cfPWV than the noncentral fat/low lean mass group (group 2) (0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.86-0.92 vs. 0.85, 95% CI = 0.83-0.87; P <0.01) or the noncentral fat/high lean mass group (group 1) (0.89, 95% CI = 0.86-0.92 vs. 0.84, 95% CI = 0.81-0.87; P <0.01) after adjustments. Aortic stiffness increased from group 1 to group 4 (P for linear trend <0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Among normal weight individuals without manifest cardiovascular disease, the combination of central fat distribution and low lean mass is associated with higher cfPWV. These factors are more closely related to cfPWV than total fat mass.
- arterial stiffness
- blood pressure
- central obesity
- lean mass
- normal weight obesity
- pulse wave velocity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas