Inactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases reverts aberrant DNA methylation in acute myeloid leukemia

Na Shen, Fei Yan, Jiuxia Pang, Na Zhao, Naseema Gangat, Laichu Wu, Ann M. Bode, Aref Al-Kali, Mark R Litzow, Shujun Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are frequently deregulated in leukemia, yet the biological consequences of this deregulation remain elusive. The mechanisms underlying aberrant methylation, a hallmark of leukemia, are not fully understood. Here we investigated the role of RTKs in methylation abnormalities and characterized the hypomethylating activities of RTK inhibitors. Experimental Design: Whether and how RTKs regulate expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) as well as global and gene-specific DNA methylation were examined. The pharmacologic activities and mechanisms of actions of RTK inhibitors in vitro, ex vivo, in mice, and in nilotinib-treated leukemia patients were determined. Results: Upregulation of RTKs paralleled DNMT overexpression in leukemia cell lines and patient blasts. Knockdown of RTKs disrupted, whereas enforced expression increased DNMT expression and DNA methylation. Treatment with the RTK inhibitor, nilotinib, resulted in a reduction of Sp1-dependent DNMT1 expression, the diminution of global DNA methylation, and the upregulation of the p15INK4B gene through promoter hypomethylation in AML cell lines and patient blasts. This led to disruption of AML cell clonogenicity and promotion of cellular apoptosis without obvious changes in cell cycle. Importantly, nilotinib administration in mice and human patients with AML impaired expression of DNMTs followed by DNA hypomethylation, TSG re-expression, and leukemia regression. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate RTKs as novel regulators of DNMT-dependent DNA methylation and define DNA methylation status in AML cells as a pharmacodynamic marker for their response to RTK-based therapy, providing new therapeutic avenues for RTK inhibitors in overcoming epigenetic abnormalities in leukemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6254-6267
Number of pages14
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume23
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 15 2017

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Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
DNA Methylation
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Methyltransferases
Leukemia
DNA
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Methylation
Up-Regulation
Cell Line
Epigenomics
Genes
Cell Cycle
Research Design
Therapeutics
Apoptosis
Gene Expression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Inactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases reverts aberrant DNA methylation in acute myeloid leukemia. / Shen, Na; Yan, Fei; Pang, Jiuxia; Zhao, Na; Gangat, Naseema; Wu, Laichu; Bode, Ann M.; Al-Kali, Aref; Litzow, Mark R; Liu, Shujun.

In: Clinical Cancer Research, Vol. 23, No. 20, 15.10.2017, p. 6254-6267.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shen, N, Yan, F, Pang, J, Zhao, N, Gangat, N, Wu, L, Bode, AM, Al-Kali, A, Litzow, MR & Liu, S 2017, 'Inactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases reverts aberrant DNA methylation in acute myeloid leukemia', Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 23, no. 20, pp. 6254-6267. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-0235
Shen, Na ; Yan, Fei ; Pang, Jiuxia ; Zhao, Na ; Gangat, Naseema ; Wu, Laichu ; Bode, Ann M. ; Al-Kali, Aref ; Litzow, Mark R ; Liu, Shujun. / Inactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases reverts aberrant DNA methylation in acute myeloid leukemia. In: Clinical Cancer Research. 2017 ; Vol. 23, No. 20. pp. 6254-6267.
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AU - Shen, Na

AU - Yan, Fei

AU - Pang, Jiuxia

AU - Zhao, Na

AU - Gangat, Naseema

AU - Wu, Laichu

AU - Bode, Ann M.

AU - Al-Kali, Aref

AU - Litzow, Mark R

AU - Liu, Shujun

PY - 2017/10/15

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N2 - Purpose: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are frequently deregulated in leukemia, yet the biological consequences of this deregulation remain elusive. The mechanisms underlying aberrant methylation, a hallmark of leukemia, are not fully understood. Here we investigated the role of RTKs in methylation abnormalities and characterized the hypomethylating activities of RTK inhibitors. Experimental Design: Whether and how RTKs regulate expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) as well as global and gene-specific DNA methylation were examined. The pharmacologic activities and mechanisms of actions of RTK inhibitors in vitro, ex vivo, in mice, and in nilotinib-treated leukemia patients were determined. Results: Upregulation of RTKs paralleled DNMT overexpression in leukemia cell lines and patient blasts. Knockdown of RTKs disrupted, whereas enforced expression increased DNMT expression and DNA methylation. Treatment with the RTK inhibitor, nilotinib, resulted in a reduction of Sp1-dependent DNMT1 expression, the diminution of global DNA methylation, and the upregulation of the p15INK4B gene through promoter hypomethylation in AML cell lines and patient blasts. This led to disruption of AML cell clonogenicity and promotion of cellular apoptosis without obvious changes in cell cycle. Importantly, nilotinib administration in mice and human patients with AML impaired expression of DNMTs followed by DNA hypomethylation, TSG re-expression, and leukemia regression. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate RTKs as novel regulators of DNMT-dependent DNA methylation and define DNA methylation status in AML cells as a pharmacodynamic marker for their response to RTK-based therapy, providing new therapeutic avenues for RTK inhibitors in overcoming epigenetic abnormalities in leukemia.

AB - Purpose: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are frequently deregulated in leukemia, yet the biological consequences of this deregulation remain elusive. The mechanisms underlying aberrant methylation, a hallmark of leukemia, are not fully understood. Here we investigated the role of RTKs in methylation abnormalities and characterized the hypomethylating activities of RTK inhibitors. Experimental Design: Whether and how RTKs regulate expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) as well as global and gene-specific DNA methylation were examined. The pharmacologic activities and mechanisms of actions of RTK inhibitors in vitro, ex vivo, in mice, and in nilotinib-treated leukemia patients were determined. Results: Upregulation of RTKs paralleled DNMT overexpression in leukemia cell lines and patient blasts. Knockdown of RTKs disrupted, whereas enforced expression increased DNMT expression and DNA methylation. Treatment with the RTK inhibitor, nilotinib, resulted in a reduction of Sp1-dependent DNMT1 expression, the diminution of global DNA methylation, and the upregulation of the p15INK4B gene through promoter hypomethylation in AML cell lines and patient blasts. This led to disruption of AML cell clonogenicity and promotion of cellular apoptosis without obvious changes in cell cycle. Importantly, nilotinib administration in mice and human patients with AML impaired expression of DNMTs followed by DNA hypomethylation, TSG re-expression, and leukemia regression. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate RTKs as novel regulators of DNMT-dependent DNA methylation and define DNA methylation status in AML cells as a pharmacodynamic marker for their response to RTK-based therapy, providing new therapeutic avenues for RTK inhibitors in overcoming epigenetic abnormalities in leukemia.

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