Objectives This study investigated the characteristics, evaluation, prognostic impact, and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Background CAD is common in patients with HFpEF, but it remains unclear how CAD should be categorized, evaluated for, and treated in HFpEF. Methods Clinical, hemodynamic, echocardiographic, treatment, and outcome characteristics were examined in consecutive patients with previous HFpEF hospitalizations who underwent coronary angiography. Results Of the 376 HFpEF patients examined, 255 (68%) had angiographically-proven CAD. Compared with HFpEF patients without CAD, patients with CAD were more likely to be men, to have CAD risk factors, and to be treated with anti-ischemic medications. However, symptoms of angina and heart failure were similar in patients with and without CAD, as were measures of cardiovascular structure, function, and hemodynamics. Compared with patients without CAD, HFpEF patients with CAD displayed greater deterioration in ejection fraction and increased mortality, independent of other predictors (hazard ratio: 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 2.98; p = 0.04). Complete revascularization was associated with less deterioration in ejection fraction and lower mortality compared with patients who were not completely revascularized, independent of other predictors (hazard ratio: 0.56, 95% confidence interval: 0.33 to 0.93; p = 0.03). Conclusions CAD is common in patients with HFpEF and is associated with increased mortality and greater deterioration in ventricular function. Revascularization may be associated with preservation of cardiac function and improved outcomes in patients with CAD. Given the paucity of effective treatments for HFpEF, prospective trials are urgently needed to determine the optimal evaluation and management of CAD in HFpEF.
- coronary artery disease
- diastolic heart failure
- heart failure
- heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine