High-Output Heart Failure: A 15-Year Experience

Yogesh N V Reddy, Vojtech Melenovsky, Margaret May Redfield, Rick A. Nishimura, Barry A Borlaug

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background High-output heart failure (HF) is an unusual cause of cardiac failure that has not been well-characterized. Objectives This study sought to characterize the etiologies, pathophysiology, clinical and hemodynamic characteristics, and outcomes of high-output HF in the modern era. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients referred to the Mayo Clinic catheterization laboratory for hemodynamic assessment between 2000 and 2014. Subjects with definite HF, as defined by the Framingham criteria, were compared to controls of similar age and sex. Results The most common etiologies of high-output HF (n = 120) were obesity (31%), liver disease (23%), arteriovenous shunts (23%), lung disease (16%), and myeloproliferative disorders (8%). Compared with controls (n = 24), subjects with high-output HF displayed eccentric left ventricular remodeling, greater natriuretic peptide activation, higher filling pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and increased cardiac output, despite similar ejection fraction. Elevated cardiac output in high-output HF patients was related to both lower arterial afterload (decreased systemic vascular resistance) and higher metabolic rate. Mortality was increased in high-output HF as compared with controls (hazard ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 7.6). Hemodynamics and outcomes were poorest amongst patients with the lowest systemic vascular resistance. Conclusions High-output HF is an important cause of clinical HF in the modern era that is related to excessive vasodilation, and most frequently caused by obesity, arteriovenous shunts, and liver disease. Given the high mortality and increasing prevalence of these comorbidities in Western countries, high-output HF must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with dyspnea, congestion, and a normal ejection fraction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)473-482
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume68
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2 2016

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Heart Failure
Hemodynamics
Vascular Resistance
Liver Diseases
Obesity
High Cardiac Output
Safety Management
Myeloproliferative Disorders
Natriuretic Peptides
Ventricular Remodeling
Mortality
Pulmonary Hypertension
Vasodilation
Catheterization
Cardiac Output
Dyspnea
Lung Diseases
Comorbidity
Differential Diagnosis
Confidence Intervals

Keywords

  • cirrhosis
  • hemodynamics
  • obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

High-Output Heart Failure : A 15-Year Experience. / Reddy, Yogesh N V; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Redfield, Margaret May; Nishimura, Rick A.; Borlaug, Barry A.

In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 68, No. 5, 02.08.2016, p. 473-482.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reddy, Yogesh N V ; Melenovsky, Vojtech ; Redfield, Margaret May ; Nishimura, Rick A. ; Borlaug, Barry A. / High-Output Heart Failure : A 15-Year Experience. In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2016 ; Vol. 68, No. 5. pp. 473-482.
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abstract = "Background High-output heart failure (HF) is an unusual cause of cardiac failure that has not been well-characterized. Objectives This study sought to characterize the etiologies, pathophysiology, clinical and hemodynamic characteristics, and outcomes of high-output HF in the modern era. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients referred to the Mayo Clinic catheterization laboratory for hemodynamic assessment between 2000 and 2014. Subjects with definite HF, as defined by the Framingham criteria, were compared to controls of similar age and sex. Results The most common etiologies of high-output HF (n = 120) were obesity (31{\%}), liver disease (23{\%}), arteriovenous shunts (23{\%}), lung disease (16{\%}), and myeloproliferative disorders (8{\%}). Compared with controls (n = 24), subjects with high-output HF displayed eccentric left ventricular remodeling, greater natriuretic peptide activation, higher filling pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and increased cardiac output, despite similar ejection fraction. Elevated cardiac output in high-output HF patients was related to both lower arterial afterload (decreased systemic vascular resistance) and higher metabolic rate. Mortality was increased in high-output HF as compared with controls (hazard ratio: 3.4; 95{\%} confidence interval: 1.6 to 7.6). Hemodynamics and outcomes were poorest amongst patients with the lowest systemic vascular resistance. Conclusions High-output HF is an important cause of clinical HF in the modern era that is related to excessive vasodilation, and most frequently caused by obesity, arteriovenous shunts, and liver disease. Given the high mortality and increasing prevalence of these comorbidities in Western countries, high-output HF must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with dyspnea, congestion, and a normal ejection fraction.",
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N2 - Background High-output heart failure (HF) is an unusual cause of cardiac failure that has not been well-characterized. Objectives This study sought to characterize the etiologies, pathophysiology, clinical and hemodynamic characteristics, and outcomes of high-output HF in the modern era. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients referred to the Mayo Clinic catheterization laboratory for hemodynamic assessment between 2000 and 2014. Subjects with definite HF, as defined by the Framingham criteria, were compared to controls of similar age and sex. Results The most common etiologies of high-output HF (n = 120) were obesity (31%), liver disease (23%), arteriovenous shunts (23%), lung disease (16%), and myeloproliferative disorders (8%). Compared with controls (n = 24), subjects with high-output HF displayed eccentric left ventricular remodeling, greater natriuretic peptide activation, higher filling pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and increased cardiac output, despite similar ejection fraction. Elevated cardiac output in high-output HF patients was related to both lower arterial afterload (decreased systemic vascular resistance) and higher metabolic rate. Mortality was increased in high-output HF as compared with controls (hazard ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 7.6). Hemodynamics and outcomes were poorest amongst patients with the lowest systemic vascular resistance. Conclusions High-output HF is an important cause of clinical HF in the modern era that is related to excessive vasodilation, and most frequently caused by obesity, arteriovenous shunts, and liver disease. Given the high mortality and increasing prevalence of these comorbidities in Western countries, high-output HF must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with dyspnea, congestion, and a normal ejection fraction.

AB - Background High-output heart failure (HF) is an unusual cause of cardiac failure that has not been well-characterized. Objectives This study sought to characterize the etiologies, pathophysiology, clinical and hemodynamic characteristics, and outcomes of high-output HF in the modern era. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients referred to the Mayo Clinic catheterization laboratory for hemodynamic assessment between 2000 and 2014. Subjects with definite HF, as defined by the Framingham criteria, were compared to controls of similar age and sex. Results The most common etiologies of high-output HF (n = 120) were obesity (31%), liver disease (23%), arteriovenous shunts (23%), lung disease (16%), and myeloproliferative disorders (8%). Compared with controls (n = 24), subjects with high-output HF displayed eccentric left ventricular remodeling, greater natriuretic peptide activation, higher filling pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and increased cardiac output, despite similar ejection fraction. Elevated cardiac output in high-output HF patients was related to both lower arterial afterload (decreased systemic vascular resistance) and higher metabolic rate. Mortality was increased in high-output HF as compared with controls (hazard ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 7.6). Hemodynamics and outcomes were poorest amongst patients with the lowest systemic vascular resistance. Conclusions High-output HF is an important cause of clinical HF in the modern era that is related to excessive vasodilation, and most frequently caused by obesity, arteriovenous shunts, and liver disease. Given the high mortality and increasing prevalence of these comorbidities in Western countries, high-output HF must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with dyspnea, congestion, and a normal ejection fraction.

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