Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with an estimated 782,000 new cases and 746,000 deaths from HCC in 2012 alone. The highest rates of HCC occur in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where the primary etiology is hepatitis B virus infection. Over the past few decades, Europe and the USA have also experienced substantial increases in HCC incidence and mortality mainly as a result of hepatitis C virus-associated cirrhosis. In many patients, the coexistence of HCC and cirrhosis complicates prognostic assessment and treatment. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the pathophysiology of HCC, recommendations for screening and diagnosis, and an up-to-date summary of the current therapies and future directions in management of this complex disease.
- BCLC staging
- Liver transplantation
- Radiofrequency ablation
- Transarterial chemoembolization
- Transarterial radioembolization
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