Hamstring injuries are common among active and athletic individuals, especially those involved in high-speed running, distance running, or sports requiring sudden directional changes. Acute hamstring strains often occur as an eccentric strain during running or a stretch-type injury caused by simultaneous hip flexion and knee extension. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy is an overuse injury of the hamstring tendon as a result of chronic cicatrization of the musculotendinous unit. Repeated stress to the hamstring tendon leads to increased cellularity of tendon fibers, disruption of collagen, and subsequent microinjury of the tissue that attaches the tendon to bone. Management of hamstring injuries generally begins with nonoperative modalities consisting of eccentric rehabilitative exercise programs. Although various other treatment modalities are available, the comparative efficacy of these supportive measures is not well differentiated at this time. In this article, we review the current literature with regard to the nonoperative treatment of hamstring injuries, specifically focusing on acute hamstring muscle strains and proximal hamstring tendinopathy in order to provide supplementary insight on the effectiveness of current modalities.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine