### Abstract

Due to engineering limitations, the spatial encoding gradient fields in conventional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be perfectly linear and always contain higher-order, nonlinear components. If ignored during image reconstruction, gradient nonlinearity (GNL) manifests as image geometric distortion. Given an estimate of the GNL field, this distortion can be corrected to a degree proportional to the accuracy of the field estimate. The GNL of a gradient system is typically characterized using a spherical harmonic polynomial model with model coefficients obtained from electromagnetic simulation. Conventional whole-body gradient systems are symmetric in design; typically, only odd-order terms up to the 5th-order are required for GNL modeling. Recently, a high-performance, asymmetric gradient system was developed, which exhibits more complex GNL that requires higher-order terms including both odd- and even-orders for accurate modeling. This work characterizes the GNL of this system using an iterative calibration method and a fiducial phantom used in ADNI (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative). The phantom was scanned at different locations inside the 26 cm diameter-spherical-volume of this gradient, and the positions of fiducials in the phantom were estimated. An iterative calibration procedure was utilized to identify the model coefficients that minimize the mean-squared-error between the true fiducial positions and the positions estimated from images corrected using these coefficients. To examine the effect of higher-order and even-order terms, this calibration was performed using spherical harmonic polynomial of different orders up to the 10th-order including even- and odd-order terms, or odd-order only. The results showed that the model coefficients of this gradient can be successfully estimated. The residual root-mean-squared-error after correction using up to the 10th-order coefficients was reduced to 0.36 mm, yielding spatial accuracy comparable to conventional whole-body gradients. The even-order terms were necessary for accurate GNL modeling. In addition, the calibrated coefficients improved image geometric accuracy compared with the simulation-based coefficients.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | N18-N31 |

Journal | Physics in Medicine and Biology |

Volume | 62 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jan 21 2017 |

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### Keywords

- asymmetric gradient
- compact 3T
- gradient nonlinearity
- head-only MRI system
- image geometric distortion

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

### Cite this

*Physics in Medicine and Biology*,

*62*(2), N18-N31. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aa524f