Genotype phenotype correlation in dent disease 2 and review of the literature: Ocrl gene pleiotropism or extreme phenotypic variability of lowe syndrome?

Lisa Gianesello, Jennifer Arroyo, Dorella Del Prete, Giovanna Priante, Monica Ceol, Peter C Harris, John C. Lieske, Franca Anglani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Dent disease is a rare X-linked renal tubulopathy due to CLCN5 and OCRL (DD2) mutations. OCRL mutations also cause Lowe syndrome (LS) involving the eyes, brain and kidney. DD2 is frequently described as a mild form of LS because some patients may present with extra-renal symptoms (ESs). Since DD2 is a rare disease and there are a low number of reported cases, it is still unclear whether it has a clinical picture distinct from LS. We retrospectively analyzed the phenotype and genotype of our cohort of 35 DD2 males and reviewed all published DD2 cases. We analyzed the distribution of mutations along the OCRL gene and evaluated the type and frequency of ES according to the type of mutation and localization in OCRL protein domains. The frequency of patients with at least one ES was 39%. Muscle findings are the most common ES (52%), while ocular findings are less common (11%). Analysis of the distribution of mutations revealed (1) truncating mutations map in the PH and linker domain, while missense mutations map in the 5-phosphatase domain, and only occasionally in the ASH-RhoGAP module; (2) five OCRL mutations cause both DD2 and LS phenotypes; (3) codon 318 is a DD2 mutational hot spot; (4) a correlation was found between the presence of ES and the position of the mutations along OCRL domains. DD2 is distinct from LS. The mutation site and the mutation type largely determine the DD2 phenotype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1597
JournalGenes
Volume12
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Dent disease 2
  • Genotype–phenotype correlations
  • Lowe syndrome
  • OCRL domains
  • OCRL mutations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

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