The growing body of genomic information collected and applied to mature aggressive B-cell lymphoma diagnosis and management has exploded over the last few years due to improved technologies with high-throughput capacity, suitable for use on routine formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies, and decreasing costs. These techniques have made evaluation of complete DNA sequences, RNA-expression patterns, translocations, copy-number alterations, loss of heterozygosity, and DNA-methylation patterns possible on a genome-wide level. This chapter will present a case of aggressive B-cell lymphoma and discuss the most important genomic abnormalities that characterize this group of entities in the recent update to the fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) lymphoma classification system. Genomic abnormalities discussed will include those necessary for certain diagnoses such as translocations of MYC, BCL2, or BCL6; gene-expression-profiling categorization; the newly defined Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q abnormalities; prognostic and predictive mutations, as well as tumor heterogeneity. Finally, our current practices for clinical triage of specimens with a potential diagnosis of aggressive B-cell lymphomas are also described. Options for treatment at relapse, in light of these genomic features, will be discussed in the third presentation from this session.
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