BACKGROUND: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) with risk of poor outcome has been linked to MYH6 variants, implicating overlap in genetic etiologies of structural and myopathic heart disease. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing was performed in 197 probands with HLHS, 43 family members, and 813 controls. Data were filtered for rare, segregating variants in 3 index families comprised of an HLHS proband and relative(s) with cardiomyopathy. Whole genome sequencing data from cases and controls were compared for rare variant burden across 56 cardiomyopathy genes utilizing a weighted burden test approach, accounting for multiple testing using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: A pathogenic MYBPC3 nonsense variant was identified in the first proband who underwent cardiac transplantation for diastolic heart failure, her father with left ventricular noncompaction, and 2 fourth-degree relatives with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A likely pathogenic RYR2 missense variant was identified in the second proband, a second-degree relative with aortic dilation, and a fourth-degree relative with dilated cardiomyopathy. A pathogenic RYR2 exon 3 in-frame deletion was identified in the third proband diagnosed with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and his father with left ventricular noncompaction and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. To further investigate HLHS-cardiomyopathy gene associations in cases versus controls, rare variant burden testing of 56 genes revealed enrichment in MYH6 (P=0.000068). Rare, predicted-damaging MYH6 variants were identified in 10% of probands in our cohort-4 with familial congenital heart disease, 4 with compound heterozygosity (3 with systolic ventricular dysfunction), and 4 with MYH6-FLNC synergistic heterozygosity. CONCLUSIONS: Whole genome sequencing in multiplex families, proband-parent trios, and case-control cohorts revealed defects in cardiomyopathy-associated genes in patients with HLHS, which may portend impaired functional reserve of the single-ventricle circulation.
- heart defects, congenital
- heart failure
- hypoplastic left heart syndrome
- whole genome sequencing
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine