Myelin repair (remyelination) following the demyelination of central nervous system (CNS) axons in diseases such as multiple sclerosis plays a critical role in determining the level of accompanying neurologic disability. While remyelination can be quite robust, in multiple sclerosis it often fails. Understanding and stimulating the remyelination process are therefore important goals in MS research. Remyelination is a complex cellular process that involves an intimate interplay between the myelin-producing cells of the CNS (oligodendrocytes), the axons to be myelinated, as well as CNS-infiltrating immune cells. Genetic analysis can be a powerful tool for the functional analysis of complex cellular processes and has recently been applied to the problem of remyelination failure during disease. This chapter reviews the recent use of genetic approaches for the study of CNS remyelination in mouse models of demyelinating disease.