With the exception of predominant heartburn, the management of upper abdominal symptoms not caused by an organic disorder remains a challenge. Systematic reviews of large trials show that suppressing acid secretion and eradicating Helicobacter pylori, prokinetics, and antidepressants have inconsistent effects on the treatment of functional dyspepsia. This inconsistent therapeutic efficacy has been attributed to the heterogeneity of patients, and the contribution of multiple mechanisms to development of symptoms. To achieve greater therapeutic efficacy, it may be necessary to target the therapeutic approach to a specific pathophysiology, such as impaired gastric emptying.
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