Fragile histidine triad protein, WW domain-containing oxidoreductase protein wwox, and activator protein 2γ expression levels correlate with basal phenotype in breast cancer

Gulnur Guler, Kay Huebner, Cigdem Himmetoglu, Rafael E Jimenez, Stefan Costinean, Stefano Volinia, Robert T. Pilarski, Mutlu Hayran, Charles L. Shapiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: The expression of fragile histidine triad protein (Fhit) and WW domain-containing oxidore-ductase protein (Wwox), tumor suppressors that are encoded by fragile (FRA) loci FRA3B and FRA16D, are lost concordantly in breast cancers. In the current study, the authors examined correlations among Fhit, Wwox, the activator protein 2 transcription factors AP2α and AP2γ, cytokeratins 5 and 6 (CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) and their associations with breast cancer phenotypes. METHODS: Tissue microarrays constructed from 837 breast cancer blocks were immunostained. Expression in >10% of tumor cells was considered positive for cytoplasmic CK5/6, membranous EGFR, and nuclear AP2α and AP2c. Cytoplasmic Fhit and Wwox staining was scored according to staining intensity. ER, PR, and HER-2 status of tumors was derived from records. Correlations among immunohistochemical markers and tumor subtypes were assessed by univariate and multivariate statistical methods. RESULTS: Triple-negative tumors had more frequent expression of EGFR, CK5/6 (P < .001), and AP2γ (P = .003) and more frequent loss of Fhit and Wwox (P < .001), and an inverse correlation was observed between Fhit, Wwox expression and EGFR, ER, and PR expression (P < .001). Reduced Fhit expression was more common in HER-2-positive and AP2γ-positive cases (P < .001 and P = .002, respectively). There was a direct correlation noted between Fhit and Wwox (P < .001) and a borderline positive relation between AP2α and AP2γ (P = .054). CONCLUSIONS: The results from this investigation suggested that reduced expression levels of Fhit, Wwox, and nuclear AP2c have roles in the pathogenesis of basal-like differentiation in breast cancer. Alteration in the expression of fragile site genes occurs in most of these cancers and may contribute to defects in DNA repair, as observed in breast cancer 1 (BRCA1)-deficient cancers. Thus, DNA damage response checkpoint proteins may be targets for treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)899-908
Number of pages10
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 15 2009
Externally publishedYes



  • Activator protein 2 transcription factors
  • Breast cancer subtypes
  • Common fragile sites
  • Fragile histidine triad protein
  • Triple-negative breast cancers
  • Ww domain-containing protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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