Field of view comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopy

Jamie J. Van Gompel, Mark H. Tabor, A. Samy Youssef, Tsz Lau, Andrew P. Carlson, Harry R. Van Loveren, Siviero Agazzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Objectives/Hypothesis Relative to microscopic transnasal surgery, endoscopic surgery provides improved visualization with an increased field of view. Advances such as high-definition (HD) and three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy have been introduced and clearly improve visualization. However, do both technologies maintain an increased field of view? We hypothesize that the field of view of 3D endoscopy is restricted relative to two-dimensional (2D) HD endoscopy. Study Design Laboratory investigation, prospective case series. Methods Standard measurements at 6-cm and 2-cm working distances where made to determine the comparative field of view utilizing Storz 0° 2D HD and Visionsense 3D endoscopes. Relative measurements were then made to determine field of view. Five clinical patients were then utilized to confirm laboratory studies and demonstrate the relative field of view change. Results 3D endoscopy demonstrates a 52% loss of field of view compared to 2D endoscopy in a controlled lab testing. This was confirmed in a small clinical patient series where a 55% ± 3% relative field of view reduction was observed. Conclusions When working with 3D endoscopy in a currently available commercial product, the operator should be aware that relative to HD 2D endoscopy, there is a field of view restriction of 52%. Level of Evidence N/A.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)387-390
Number of pages4
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2014


  • Endoscopic skull base
  • endoscope

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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