The molecular mechanisms underlying familial parathyroid diseases continue to be elucidated. The mechanisms of familial parathyroid diseases are better understood than many sporadic parathyroid diseases. Familial parathyroid disease is associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 which is associated with MEN1 mutation, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A caused by RET mutation, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 4 is caused with CDKN1B mutation. Sporadic parathyroid tumours are identified with mutations of MEN1 but generally not of RET. CDKN1B mutations are also identified in sporadic forms of primary hyperparathyroidism, although very rarely. Calcium sensing receptor gene mutations are involved in familial hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism, but are generally not identified in sporadic parathyroid tumours. However, the HPRT2 (CDC73) gene, which is mutated in hyperparathyroidism jaw-tumour syndrome and a subset of cases of familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, is frequently mutated in sporadic parathyroid carcinomas. Germline activating GCM2 mutations were recently found associated with a subset of familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. Parafibromin, a protein encoded by HPRT2, has been used in the diagnostic setting. The understanding and pathogenesis of parathyroid disease continues to evolve.
- familial hyperparathyroidism
- multiple endocrine neoplasia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine