Extensive clinical experience

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis recovery after adrenalectomy for corticotropin-independent cortisol excess

Maria Daniela Hurtado, Tiffany Cortes, Neena Natt, William Francis Young, Irina Bancos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To identify predictors of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis recovery interval and severity of glucocorticoid withdrawal symptoms (GWS) in patients undergoing adrenalectomy for corticotropin-independent cortisol excess. Design: This is a retrospective study of patients with mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE), moderate and severe Cushing syndrome (CS) who developed adrenal insufficiency after unilateral adrenalectomy between 1998 and 2017. Results: Adrenalectomy was performed in 81 patients (79% women, median age 52 years [IQR 42-62]). HPA axis recovery occurred at a median of 4.3 months (IQR 1.6-11.4) after adrenalectomy (severe CS vs moderate CS vs MACE: median 11.4 vs 2.8 vs 2.1 months, P < 0.01). Main predictors of HPA axis recovery interval included: preoperative serum cortisol concentration after 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test >10 μg/dL or >276 nmol/L (9.7 vs 1.3 months if cortisol ≤10 μg/dL or ≤276 nmol/L, P < 0.01); body mass index (for every 3 kg/m2 decrease, glucocorticoid taper increased by 1 month, P < 0.05); age <45 (11.4 vs 2.3 months if ≥45 years, P < 0.05); duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis >1 year (11.4 vs 2.8 months if ≤1 year); moon facies (11.4 vs 2.2 months if no rounding of the face); and myopathy (13.1 vs 2.7 months if no myopathy, P < 0.05). Patients with severe CS had a higher incidence of GWS compared to patients with MACE (66.7% vs 40.0%, P < 0.05) with a median of 1 and 0 events/patient, respectively. Conclusions: The HPA axis recovery interval was the longest for patients with severe CS. Surprisingly, patients with moderate CS recovered their HPA axis as quickly as those with MACE. Glucocorticoid withdrawal symptoms were observed in all groups, with more events in patients with severe CS. This study emphasizes the need to counsel patients on expectations for HPA axis recovery and address intervention for GWS based on individual preoperative parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical Endocrinology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Adrenalectomy
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Hydrocortisone
Cushing Syndrome
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Glucocorticoids
Muscular Diseases
Adrenal Insufficiency
Retrospective Studies

Keywords

  • ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Adrenalectomy
  • Adrenocortical hyperfunction
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
  • Pituitary-adrenal system
  • Substance withdrawal syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Extensive clinical experience : Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis recovery after adrenalectomy for corticotropin-independent cortisol excess. / Hurtado, Maria Daniela; Cortes, Tiffany; Natt, Neena; Young, William Francis; Bancos, Irina.

In: Clinical Endocrinology, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Extensive clinical experience: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis recovery after adrenalectomy for corticotropin-independent cortisol excess",
abstract = "Objective: To identify predictors of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis recovery interval and severity of glucocorticoid withdrawal symptoms (GWS) in patients undergoing adrenalectomy for corticotropin-independent cortisol excess. Design: This is a retrospective study of patients with mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE), moderate and severe Cushing syndrome (CS) who developed adrenal insufficiency after unilateral adrenalectomy between 1998 and 2017. Results: Adrenalectomy was performed in 81 patients (79{\%} women, median age 52 years [IQR 42-62]). HPA axis recovery occurred at a median of 4.3 months (IQR 1.6-11.4) after adrenalectomy (severe CS vs moderate CS vs MACE: median 11.4 vs 2.8 vs 2.1 months, P < 0.01). Main predictors of HPA axis recovery interval included: preoperative serum cortisol concentration after 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test >10 μg/dL or >276 nmol/L (9.7 vs 1.3 months if cortisol ≤10 μg/dL or ≤276 nmol/L, P < 0.01); body mass index (for every 3 kg/m2 decrease, glucocorticoid taper increased by 1 month, P < 0.05); age <45 (11.4 vs 2.3 months if ≥45 years, P < 0.05); duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis >1 year (11.4 vs 2.8 months if ≤1 year); moon facies (11.4 vs 2.2 months if no rounding of the face); and myopathy (13.1 vs 2.7 months if no myopathy, P < 0.05). Patients with severe CS had a higher incidence of GWS compared to patients with MACE (66.7{\%} vs 40.0{\%}, P < 0.05) with a median of 1 and 0 events/patient, respectively. Conclusions: The HPA axis recovery interval was the longest for patients with severe CS. Surprisingly, patients with moderate CS recovered their HPA axis as quickly as those with MACE. Glucocorticoid withdrawal symptoms were observed in all groups, with more events in patients with severe CS. This study emphasizes the need to counsel patients on expectations for HPA axis recovery and address intervention for GWS based on individual preoperative parameters.",
keywords = "ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome, Adrenal insufficiency, Adrenalectomy, Adrenocortical hyperfunction, Glucocorticoids, Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Pituitary-adrenal system, Substance withdrawal syndrome",
author = "Hurtado, {Maria Daniela} and Tiffany Cortes and Neena Natt and Young, {William Francis} and Irina Bancos",
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journal = "Clinical Endocrinology",
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AU - Hurtado, Maria Daniela

AU - Cortes, Tiffany

AU - Natt, Neena

AU - Young, William Francis

AU - Bancos, Irina

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Objective: To identify predictors of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis recovery interval and severity of glucocorticoid withdrawal symptoms (GWS) in patients undergoing adrenalectomy for corticotropin-independent cortisol excess. Design: This is a retrospective study of patients with mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE), moderate and severe Cushing syndrome (CS) who developed adrenal insufficiency after unilateral adrenalectomy between 1998 and 2017. Results: Adrenalectomy was performed in 81 patients (79% women, median age 52 years [IQR 42-62]). HPA axis recovery occurred at a median of 4.3 months (IQR 1.6-11.4) after adrenalectomy (severe CS vs moderate CS vs MACE: median 11.4 vs 2.8 vs 2.1 months, P < 0.01). Main predictors of HPA axis recovery interval included: preoperative serum cortisol concentration after 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test >10 μg/dL or >276 nmol/L (9.7 vs 1.3 months if cortisol ≤10 μg/dL or ≤276 nmol/L, P < 0.01); body mass index (for every 3 kg/m2 decrease, glucocorticoid taper increased by 1 month, P < 0.05); age <45 (11.4 vs 2.3 months if ≥45 years, P < 0.05); duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis >1 year (11.4 vs 2.8 months if ≤1 year); moon facies (11.4 vs 2.2 months if no rounding of the face); and myopathy (13.1 vs 2.7 months if no myopathy, P < 0.05). Patients with severe CS had a higher incidence of GWS compared to patients with MACE (66.7% vs 40.0%, P < 0.05) with a median of 1 and 0 events/patient, respectively. Conclusions: The HPA axis recovery interval was the longest for patients with severe CS. Surprisingly, patients with moderate CS recovered their HPA axis as quickly as those with MACE. Glucocorticoid withdrawal symptoms were observed in all groups, with more events in patients with severe CS. This study emphasizes the need to counsel patients on expectations for HPA axis recovery and address intervention for GWS based on individual preoperative parameters.

AB - Objective: To identify predictors of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis recovery interval and severity of glucocorticoid withdrawal symptoms (GWS) in patients undergoing adrenalectomy for corticotropin-independent cortisol excess. Design: This is a retrospective study of patients with mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE), moderate and severe Cushing syndrome (CS) who developed adrenal insufficiency after unilateral adrenalectomy between 1998 and 2017. Results: Adrenalectomy was performed in 81 patients (79% women, median age 52 years [IQR 42-62]). HPA axis recovery occurred at a median of 4.3 months (IQR 1.6-11.4) after adrenalectomy (severe CS vs moderate CS vs MACE: median 11.4 vs 2.8 vs 2.1 months, P < 0.01). Main predictors of HPA axis recovery interval included: preoperative serum cortisol concentration after 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test >10 μg/dL or >276 nmol/L (9.7 vs 1.3 months if cortisol ≤10 μg/dL or ≤276 nmol/L, P < 0.01); body mass index (for every 3 kg/m2 decrease, glucocorticoid taper increased by 1 month, P < 0.05); age <45 (11.4 vs 2.3 months if ≥45 years, P < 0.05); duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis >1 year (11.4 vs 2.8 months if ≤1 year); moon facies (11.4 vs 2.2 months if no rounding of the face); and myopathy (13.1 vs 2.7 months if no myopathy, P < 0.05). Patients with severe CS had a higher incidence of GWS compared to patients with MACE (66.7% vs 40.0%, P < 0.05) with a median of 1 and 0 events/patient, respectively. Conclusions: The HPA axis recovery interval was the longest for patients with severe CS. Surprisingly, patients with moderate CS recovered their HPA axis as quickly as those with MACE. Glucocorticoid withdrawal symptoms were observed in all groups, with more events in patients with severe CS. This study emphasizes the need to counsel patients on expectations for HPA axis recovery and address intervention for GWS based on individual preoperative parameters.

KW - ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome

KW - Adrenal insufficiency

KW - Adrenalectomy

KW - Adrenocortical hyperfunction

KW - Glucocorticoids

KW - Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

KW - Pituitary-adrenal system

KW - Substance withdrawal syndrome

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JO - Clinical Endocrinology

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