Exercise ventilatory inefficiency in heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Joshua R. Smith, Erik H. Van Iterson, Bruce David Johnson, Barry A Borlaug, Thomas P Olson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Dyspnea on exertion is common to both heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it is important to discriminate whether symptoms are caused by HF or COPD in clinical practice. The ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (V̇E/V̇CO2) slope and V̇E intercept (a reflection of pulmonary dead space) are two candidate non-invasive indices that could be used for this purpose. Thus, we compared non-invasive indexes of ventilatory efficiency in patients with HF and preserved or reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF and HFrEF, respectively) or COPD. Methods: Patients with HFpEF (n = 21), HFrEF (n = 20), and COPD (n = 22) patients performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing to volitional fatigue. V̇E and gas exchange were measured via breath-by-breath open circuit spirometry. All data from rest to peak exercise were used to calculate V̇E/V̇CO2 slope and V̇E intercept using linear regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine optimized cutoffs for V̇E/V̇CO2 slope and V̇E intercept to discriminate HFpEF and HFrEF from COPD. Results: HFrEF patients had a greater V̇E/V̇CO2 slope than HFpEF and COPD patients (HFrEF: 40 ± 9; HFpEF: 32 ± 7; COPD: 32 ± 7) (p < 0.01). COPD patients had a greater V̇E intercept than HFpEF and HFrEF patients (COPD: 3.32 ± 1.66; HFpEF: 0.77 ± 1.23; HFrEF: 1.28 ± 1.19 L/min) (p < 0.01). A V̇E intercept of 2.64 L/min discriminated COPD from HF patients (AUC: 0.88, p < 0.01), while V̇E/V̇CO2 slope did not (p = 0.11). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that V̇E intercept, not V̇E/V̇CO2 slope, may discriminate COPD from both HFpEF and HFrEF patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Heart Failure
Exercise
Spirometry
Carbon Dioxide
ROC Curve
Dyspnea
Area Under Curve
Fatigue
Linear Models
Gases
Lung

Keywords

  • Breathing strategy
  • Diastolic heart failure
  • Systolic heart failure
  • V/VCO slope
  • Ventilatory intercept

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

@article{206cf37563114078b591df0be57711c3,
title = "Exercise ventilatory inefficiency in heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease",
abstract = "Background: Dyspnea on exertion is common to both heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it is important to discriminate whether symptoms are caused by HF or COPD in clinical practice. The ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (V̇E/V̇CO2) slope and V̇E intercept (a reflection of pulmonary dead space) are two candidate non-invasive indices that could be used for this purpose. Thus, we compared non-invasive indexes of ventilatory efficiency in patients with HF and preserved or reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF and HFrEF, respectively) or COPD. Methods: Patients with HFpEF (n = 21), HFrEF (n = 20), and COPD (n = 22) patients performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing to volitional fatigue. V̇E and gas exchange were measured via breath-by-breath open circuit spirometry. All data from rest to peak exercise were used to calculate V̇E/V̇CO2 slope and V̇E intercept using linear regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine optimized cutoffs for V̇E/V̇CO2 slope and V̇E intercept to discriminate HFpEF and HFrEF from COPD. Results: HFrEF patients had a greater V̇E/V̇CO2 slope than HFpEF and COPD patients (HFrEF: 40 ± 9; HFpEF: 32 ± 7; COPD: 32 ± 7) (p < 0.01). COPD patients had a greater V̇E intercept than HFpEF and HFrEF patients (COPD: 3.32 ± 1.66; HFpEF: 0.77 ± 1.23; HFrEF: 1.28 ± 1.19 L/min) (p < 0.01). A V̇E intercept of 2.64 L/min discriminated COPD from HF patients (AUC: 0.88, p < 0.01), while V̇E/V̇CO2 slope did not (p = 0.11). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that V̇E intercept, not V̇E/V̇CO2 slope, may discriminate COPD from both HFpEF and HFrEF patients.",
keywords = "Breathing strategy, Diastolic heart failure, Systolic heart failure, V/VCO slope, Ventilatory intercept",
author = "Smith, {Joshua R.} and {Van Iterson}, {Erik H.} and Johnson, {Bruce David} and Borlaug, {Barry A} and Olson, {Thomas P}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.09.007",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "International Journal of Cardiology",
issn = "0167-5273",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Exercise ventilatory inefficiency in heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

AU - Smith, Joshua R.

AU - Van Iterson, Erik H.

AU - Johnson, Bruce David

AU - Borlaug, Barry A

AU - Olson, Thomas P

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Background: Dyspnea on exertion is common to both heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it is important to discriminate whether symptoms are caused by HF or COPD in clinical practice. The ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (V̇E/V̇CO2) slope and V̇E intercept (a reflection of pulmonary dead space) are two candidate non-invasive indices that could be used for this purpose. Thus, we compared non-invasive indexes of ventilatory efficiency in patients with HF and preserved or reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF and HFrEF, respectively) or COPD. Methods: Patients with HFpEF (n = 21), HFrEF (n = 20), and COPD (n = 22) patients performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing to volitional fatigue. V̇E and gas exchange were measured via breath-by-breath open circuit spirometry. All data from rest to peak exercise were used to calculate V̇E/V̇CO2 slope and V̇E intercept using linear regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine optimized cutoffs for V̇E/V̇CO2 slope and V̇E intercept to discriminate HFpEF and HFrEF from COPD. Results: HFrEF patients had a greater V̇E/V̇CO2 slope than HFpEF and COPD patients (HFrEF: 40 ± 9; HFpEF: 32 ± 7; COPD: 32 ± 7) (p < 0.01). COPD patients had a greater V̇E intercept than HFpEF and HFrEF patients (COPD: 3.32 ± 1.66; HFpEF: 0.77 ± 1.23; HFrEF: 1.28 ± 1.19 L/min) (p < 0.01). A V̇E intercept of 2.64 L/min discriminated COPD from HF patients (AUC: 0.88, p < 0.01), while V̇E/V̇CO2 slope did not (p = 0.11). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that V̇E intercept, not V̇E/V̇CO2 slope, may discriminate COPD from both HFpEF and HFrEF patients.

AB - Background: Dyspnea on exertion is common to both heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it is important to discriminate whether symptoms are caused by HF or COPD in clinical practice. The ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (V̇E/V̇CO2) slope and V̇E intercept (a reflection of pulmonary dead space) are two candidate non-invasive indices that could be used for this purpose. Thus, we compared non-invasive indexes of ventilatory efficiency in patients with HF and preserved or reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF and HFrEF, respectively) or COPD. Methods: Patients with HFpEF (n = 21), HFrEF (n = 20), and COPD (n = 22) patients performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing to volitional fatigue. V̇E and gas exchange were measured via breath-by-breath open circuit spirometry. All data from rest to peak exercise were used to calculate V̇E/V̇CO2 slope and V̇E intercept using linear regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine optimized cutoffs for V̇E/V̇CO2 slope and V̇E intercept to discriminate HFpEF and HFrEF from COPD. Results: HFrEF patients had a greater V̇E/V̇CO2 slope than HFpEF and COPD patients (HFrEF: 40 ± 9; HFpEF: 32 ± 7; COPD: 32 ± 7) (p < 0.01). COPD patients had a greater V̇E intercept than HFpEF and HFrEF patients (COPD: 3.32 ± 1.66; HFpEF: 0.77 ± 1.23; HFrEF: 1.28 ± 1.19 L/min) (p < 0.01). A V̇E intercept of 2.64 L/min discriminated COPD from HF patients (AUC: 0.88, p < 0.01), while V̇E/V̇CO2 slope did not (p = 0.11). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that V̇E intercept, not V̇E/V̇CO2 slope, may discriminate COPD from both HFpEF and HFrEF patients.

KW - Breathing strategy

KW - Diastolic heart failure

KW - Systolic heart failure

KW - V/VCO slope

KW - Ventilatory intercept

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U2 - 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.09.007

DO - 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.09.007

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JF - International Journal of Cardiology

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