Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder that may be acquired or inherited. Postsurgical hypoparathyroidism is responsible for the majority of acquired hypoparathyroidism. Transient postsurgical hypoparathyroidism is estimated to occur in 25.4–83 % in neck surgery patients, whereas permanent postsurgical hypoparathyroidism occurs in only 0.12–4.6 % of cases. The prevalence estimate for all forms of hypoparathyroidism in the USA was reported as 37 per 100,000 person-years, whereas the prevalence of postsurgical hypoparathyroidism in Denmark was reported as 22 per 100,000 person-years. The presentation of hypoparathyroidism is quite variable, with most patients mildly to moderately affected, and some severely affected. Severely affected patients may have sudden death due to complications of their hypocalcemia. The yearly cost of medical care for patients with hypoparathyroidism in Olmsted County, Minnesota, was estimated to be about three times that of healthy patients. Patients with hypoparathyroidism suffer from various morbidities ranging from symptoms related to frequent hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia, and hypercalciuria due to overtreatment, as well as alterations in well-being and mood, basal ganglia calcifications, cataracts, and skeletal disease.
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