Aims: This study aims to evaluate the impact of the combination of cardiogenic shock (CS) and cardiac arrest (CA) complicating non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Methods and results: Adult (>18 years) NSTEMI admissions using the National Inpatient Sample database (2000 to 2017) were stratified by the presence of CA and/or CS. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, early coronary angiography, hospitalization costs, and length of stay. Of the 7 302 447 hospitalizations due to NSTEMI, 147 795 (2.0%) had CS only, 155 522 (2.1%) had CA only, and 41 360 (0.6%) had both CS and CA. Compared with 2000, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) for CS, CA, and both CS and CA in 2017 were 3.75 (3.58–3.92), 1.46 (1.42–1.50), and 4.52 (4.16–4.87), respectively (all P < 0.001). The CS + CA (61.2%) cohort had higher multiorgan failure than CS (42.3%) and CA only (32.0%) cohorts, P < 0.001. The CA only cohort had lower rates of overall (52% vs. 59–60%) and early (17% vs. 18–27%) angiography compared with the other groups (all P < 0.001). CS + CA admissions had higher in-hospital mortality compared with those with CS alone (aOR 4.12 [95% CI 4.00–4.24]), CA alone (aOR 1.69 [95% CI 1.65–1.74]), or without CS/CA (aOR 22.66 [95% CI 22.06–23.27]). The presence of CS, either alone or with CA, was associated with higher hospitalization costs and longer hospital length of stay. Conclusions: The combination of CS and CA is associated with higher rates of acute non-cardiac organ failure and in-hospital mortality in NSTEMI admissions as compared with those with either CS or CA alone.
- Acute cardiovascular care
- Cardiac arrest
- Cardiogenic shock
- Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
- Outcomes research
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine