OBJECTIVE: Renovascular hypertension (RVH) induces hemodynamic and humoral aberrations that may impair cardiac function, structure and mechanics, including cardiac twist and deformation. Revascularization of a stenotic renal artery can decrease blood pressure (BP), but its ability to restore cardiac mechanics in RVH remains unclear. We hypothesized that percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) would improve cardiac function and left ventricular (LV) deformation in swine RVH. METHODS: Seventeen domestic pigs were studied for 16 weeks: RVH, RVH + PTRA and normal controls (n = 5-6 each). Global LV function was estimated by multidetector computed-tomography, and LV deformation by electrocardiographically triggered MRI tagging at the apical, mid, and basal LV levels. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, myocardial capillary density, and fibrosis were evaluated ex vivo. RESULTS: BP and wall thickness were elevated in RVH and decreased by PTRA, yet remained higher than in controls. LV myocardial muscle mass increased in RVH pigs, which also developed diastolic dysfunction, whereas cardiac output increased. Furthermore, both apical rotation and peak torsion angle increased in RVH compared with controls. Ex vivo, RVH induced myocardial fibrosis and vascular rarefaction. PTRA restored cardiac function and alleviated hypertrophy, vascular rarefaction, and fibrosis. PTRA also normalized apical rotation and peak torsion angle, and elevated basal peak radial strain and apical peak radial strain compared with RVH. CONCLUSION: In addition to cardiac LV adaptive hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, short-term RVH causes cardiac deformation. Despite only partial improvement in BP, PTRA effectively restored cardiac function and reversed abnormal mechanics. Hence, renal revascularization may be a useful strategy to preserve cardiac function in RVH.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine