Accurate cancer staging is critical in providing the most appropriate therapy for patients with lung cancer. The decision to attempt a curative surgery or avoid an unnecessary surgery is dependent on accurate staging. In the case of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most important parameters for optimal treatment and prognosis are the presence of cancer spread to the lymph nodes within the mediastinum and to distant organs. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important tool for the assessment of mediastinal lymph nodes and in some cases, distant organ metastases, because of its minimally invasive access to these sites through a transesophageal, transgastric, or transduodenal approach. The capability of performing fine needle aspiration (FNA) has greatly improved the accuracy and acceptability of EUS for lung cancer staging. This review will outline the basic principals of EUS-guided lung cancer staging and EUS-FNA techniques and outline the indications and contraindications to EUS staging of thoracic malignancy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging