Echocardiography plays an integral role in the detection of mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with congestive heart failure and in predicting beneficial response to cardiac resynchronization treatment. In patients who derive sup-optimal benefit from biventricular pacing, optimization of atrioventricular delay post cardiac resynchronization treatment has been shown to improve cardiac output. Some recent reports suggest that sequential ventricular pacing may further improve cardiac output. The mechanism whereby sequential ventricular pacing improves cardiac output is likely improved inter and possibly intraventricular synchrony, however these speculations have not been confirmed. In this report we describe the beneficial effect of sequential V-V pacing on inter and intraventricular synchrony, cardiac output and mitral regurgitation severity as the mechanisms whereby sequential biventricular pacing improves cardiac output and functional class in 8 patients who had derived no benefit or had deteriorated after CRT. Online tissue Doppler imaging including tissue velocity imaging, tissue synchronization imaging and strain and strain rate imaging were used in addition to conventional pulsed wave and color Doppler during sequential biventricular pacemaker programming.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine