Durability of Response to Fecal Microbiota Transplantation After Exposure to Risk Factors for Recurrence in Patients With Clostridioides difficile Infection

Srishti Saha, Kristin Mara, Darrell S. Pardi, Sahil Khanna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is highly effective for preventing recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Durability (no recurrence despite additional risk factor exposure) of FMT protection is largely unknown. We studied the durability of FMT in patients with recurrent CDI. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of adults undergoing FMT for recurrent CDI. Data collected included demographics, CDI risk factors (comorbidities, healthcare exposure, non-CDI antibiotic use, acid suppressant medications), and future CDI episodes. Durable response to FMT was defined as lack of CDI episodes within 1 year post-FMT despite risk factor exposure. RESULTS: Overall, 460 patients were included (median age, 57 years [18-94]; 65.2% female). Comorbidities included chronic liver disease, 12.8% (n = 59); cancer, 11.7% (n = 54); chronic kidney disease, 3.9% (n = 18); and inflammatory bowel disease, 21.9% (n = 101). Overall, 31.3% (n = 144) received antibiotics, 21.7% (n = 100) received acid suppressants, and 76.8% (n = 350) had healthcare exposure after FMT. Of 374 patients with risk factor exposure, 78.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.7%-84.0%) had durable response to FMT at 1 year. On multivariable analysis, antibiotic use was independently associated with decreased durability of FMT (hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, .15-.49; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients had a durable response to FMT despite exposure to CDI risk factors. Antibiotic exposure after FMT independently predicted loss of durability of FMT. Larger studies are needed to define predictors of durable response in patients with and without exposure to antibiotics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e1706-e1712
JournalClinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Volume73
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 5 2021

Keywords

  • antibiotic
  • diarrhea
  • microbiome
  • outcome
  • recurrence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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