Disease Activity, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Type, and Lipid Levels in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody–Associated Vasculitis

Zachary S. Wallace, Xiaoqing Fu, Katherine Liao, Cees G.M. Kallenberg, Carol A. Langford, Peter A. Merkel, Paul Monach, Philip Seo, Ulrich Specks, Robert Spiera, E. William St.Clair, Yuqing Zhang, Hyon Choi, John H. Stone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)–associated vasculitis (AAV) have an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was undertaken to develop a clearer understanding of the association between changes in disease activity and lipid levels in AAV, which may inform CVD risk stratification in this population. Methods: Lipid levels were assessed in stored serum samples (obtained at baseline and month 6) from the Rituximab for ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (RAVE) trial, which randomized patients to receive either rituximab or cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprine. Paired t-tests and multivariable linear regression were used to assess changes in lipid levels. Results: Of the 142 patients with serum samples available, the mean ± SD age was 52.3 ± 14.7 years, 72 (51%) were male, 95 (67%) were proteinase 3 (PR3)–ANCA positive, 72 (51%) had received a new diagnosis of AAV, and 75 (53%) were treated with rituximab. Several lipid levels increased between baseline and month 6, including total cholesterol (+12.4 mg/dl [95% confidence interval (95% CI) +7.1, +21.0]), low-density lipoprotein (+10.3 mg/dl [95% CI +6.1, +17.1]), and apolipoprotein B (+3.5 mg/dl [95% CI +1.0, +8.3]). These changes were observed among newly diagnosed and PR3-ANCA–positive patients but not among those with relapsing disease or myeloperoxidase-ANCA–positive patients. There was no difference in change in lipid levels between rituximab-treated patients and cyclophosphamide-treated patients. Changes in lipid levels correlated with changes in erythrocyte sedimentation rate but not with other inflammatory markers or glucocorticoid exposure. Conclusion: Lipid levels increased during remission induction among patients with newly diagnosed AAV and those who were PR3-ANCA positive. Disease activity and ANCA type should be considered when assessing lipid profiles to stratify CVD risk in patients with AAV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1879-1887
Number of pages9
JournalArthritis and Rheumatology
Volume71
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology

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