Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a rare yet frequently fatal tumor that causes significant morbidity and mortality due to late presentation. Radiology is the mainstay of CC diagnosis; however, advances in understanding the pathogenesis of CC, including the role of oncogenes, inflammation-mediated genomic instability, and interleukin-6/STAT-3 signaling pathways, may allow development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers and targets for CC therapy. Although surgical resection is the standard of care for resectable CC, liver transplantation has shown excellent results in selected patients. The use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy are currently limited by marginal response rates, toxicity, and biliary complications. Locally ablative therapies in the form of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and radioembolization are under investigation. Molecular therapies (eg, epidermal growth factor receptor, ErbB-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor antagonists) and immunotherapy using diabodies are also under investigation for treatment of unresectable CC.
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