Detecting concept mentions in biomedical text using hidden Markov model: Multiple concept types at once or one at a time?

Manabu Torii, Kavishwar Wagholikar, Hongfang Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Identifying phrases that refer to particular concept types is a critical step in extracting information from documents. Provided with annotated documents as training data, supervised machine learning can automate this process. When building a machine learning model for this task, the model may be built to detect all types simultaneously (all-types-at-once) or it may be built for one or a few selected types at a time (one-type- or a-few-types-at-a-time). It is of interest to investigate which strategy yields better detection performance. Results: Hidden Markov models using the different strategies were evaluated on a clinical corpus annotated with three concept types (i2b2/VA corpus) and a biology literature corpus annotated with five concept types (JNLPBA corpus). Ten-fold cross-validation tests were conducted and the experimental results showed that models trained for multiple concept types consistently yielded better performance than those trained for a single concept type. F-scores observed for the former strategies were higher than those observed for the latter by 0.9 to 2.6% on the i2b2/VA corpus and 1.4 to 10.1% on the JNLPBA corpus, depending on the target concept types. Improved boundary detection and reduced type confusion were observed for the all-types-at-once strategy. Conclusions: The current results suggest that detection of concept phrases could be improved by simultaneously tackling multiple concept types. This also suggests that we should annotate multiple concept types in developing a new corpus for machine learning models. Further investigation is expected to gain insights in the underlying mechanism to achieve good performance when multiple concept types are considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3
JournalJournal of Biomedical Semantics
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 17 2014

Keywords

  • Data mining
  • Electronic health records
  • Information storage and retrieval
  • Natural language processing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Networks and Communications

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