Deep vein thrombosis: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and medical management

Jonathan Stone, Patrick Hangge, Hassan Albadawi, Alex Wallace, Fadi Shamoun, M. Grace Knuttien, Sailendra Naidu, Rahmi Oklu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE), affects an estimated 1 per 1,000 people and contributes to 60,000-100,000 deaths annually. Normal blood physiology hinges on a delicate balance between pro- and anti-coagulant factors. Virchow's Triad distills the multitude of risk factors for DVT into three basic elements favoring thrombus formation: Venous stasis, vascular injury, and hypercoagulability. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological tests are used to increase the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DVT. Anticoagulation therapy is essential for the treatment of DVT. With few exceptions, the standard therapy for DVT has been Vitamin K-antagonists (VKAs) such as warfarin with heparin or fractionated heparin bridging. More recently, a number of large-scale clinical trials have validated the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in place of warfarin in select cases. In this review, we summarize the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and medical management of DVT, with particular emphasis on anticoagulation therapy and the role of DOACs in the current treatment algorithm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S276-S284
JournalCardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Volume7
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

Fingerprint

Venous Thrombosis
Coagulants
Warfarin
Anticoagulants
Heparin
Blood Physiological Phenomena
Thrombophilia
Vitamin K
Vascular System Injuries
Venous Thromboembolism
Pulmonary Embolism
Thrombosis
Therapeutics
Clinical Trials
Morbidity
Sensitivity and Specificity
Mortality

Keywords

  • Anticoagulants
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  • Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs)
  • Vitamin K-antagonists (VKAs)
  • Warfarin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Deep vein thrombosis : Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and medical management. / Stone, Jonathan; Hangge, Patrick; Albadawi, Hassan; Wallace, Alex; Shamoun, Fadi; Knuttien, M. Grace; Naidu, Sailendra; Oklu, Rahmi.

In: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy, Vol. 7, 01.12.2017, p. S276-S284.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Stone, Jonathan ; Hangge, Patrick ; Albadawi, Hassan ; Wallace, Alex ; Shamoun, Fadi ; Knuttien, M. Grace ; Naidu, Sailendra ; Oklu, Rahmi. / Deep vein thrombosis : Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and medical management. In: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy. 2017 ; Vol. 7. pp. S276-S284.
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