Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal coccidian parasite transmitted to humans through the consumption of oocysts in fecally contaminated food and water. Infection is found worldwide and is highly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions with poor sanitation. Disease in developed countries is usually observed in travelers and in seasonal outbreaks associated with imported produce from endemic areas. Recently, summertime outbreaks in the United States have also been linked to locally grown produce. Cyclosporiasis causes a diarrheal illness which may be severe in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. The increased adoption of highly sensitive molecular diagnostic tests, including commercially available multiplex panels for gastrointestinal pathogens, has facilitated the detection of infection and likely contributed to the increased reports of cases in developed countries. This manuscript reviews important aspects of the biology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of C. cayetanensis and provides an in-depth discussion of current laboratory diagnostic methods.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)