An estimated 40 million people live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) globally, and over four million people were newly diagnosed with HIV infection in 2006. Twenty-five million people have died as a result of HIV since its recognition in 1981. Where available, highly active antiretroviral therapy has resulted in significant decreases in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, opportunistic infections and conditions continue to occur, and their recognition and management continue to be an important component of HIV care.
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