Cranial suture obliteration is induced by removal of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 activity and prevented by removal of TCF-β2 activity from fetal rat calvaria in vitro

Lynne A. Opperman, Anikar Chhabra, Richard W. Cho, Roy C. Ogle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cranial suture morphogenesis requires soluble, heparin-binding factors secreted by the dura mater to resist premature osseous obliteration. Elevated levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 have previously been noted in cranial sutures undergoing normal and premature sutural obliteration. To examine the role of TGF-βs in regulating cranial suture morphogenesis, an established in vitro, serum-free, calvarial culture system was used. In this system, fetal rat coronal sutures undergo apparently normal suture morphogenesis in the presence of dura mater, but undergo osseous obliteration in the absence of dura mater. Neutralizing polyclonal antibodies to TGF-β1, TGF-β2, or TGF-β3 were added to cultures of fetal day 19 rat calvaria, which were harvested at 3, 4, or 5 days, processed for histology, sectioned, and examined. Coronal sutures from calvaria cultured in the presence of dura mater resisted obliteration, either alone or in the presence of TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 neutralizing antibodies. However, sutures from calvaria cultured in the presence of TGF-β3 neutralizing antibodies became obliterated. Conversely, sutures from calvaria cultured in the absence of dura mater became obliterated by bone, either alone or in the presence of neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β1 or TGF-β3. However, those sutures cultured in the presence of neutralizing antibodies to TGF-β2 were rescued from osseous obliteration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)164-173
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology
Volume19
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1999

Keywords

  • Calvaria
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Dura mater
  • Growth factors
  • Morphogenesis
  • Sutures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Developmental Biology

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