Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events compared to those without diabetes. The timing, relative to disease onset, and degree of glycemic control that reduces the risk of adverse cardiovascular events remains uncertain. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and is linked to adverse cardiovascular events. We assessed the association between endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent coronary microvascular dysfunction and glycemic control in patients presenting with chest pain and nonobstructive coronary disease at angiography. Methods: Patients presenting with chest pain and found to have non-obstructive CAD (stenosis < 40%) at angiography underwent an invasive assessment of endothelial-independent and endothelial -dependent microvascular function. Endothelial-independent microvascular function was assessed by comparing the coronary flow velocity, measured using a Doppler guidewire, in response to intracoronary infusion of adenosine to calculate the coronary flow reserve ratio in response to adenosine (CFRAdn Ratio). A CFRAdn Ratio ≤ 2.5 was considered abnormal. Endothelial-dependent microvascular function was assessed by measuring the percent change in coronary blood flow in response to intracoronary infusions of acetylcholine (%ΔCBFAch), and microvascular endothelial dysfunction defined as a %ΔCBFAch of ≤ 50%. Patients were classified by normal versus abnormal CFRAdn Ratio and %ΔCBFAch. Measurements of HbA1c and fasting serum glucose were obtained prior to catheterization and compared between groups. Results: Between 1993 and 2012, 1469 patients (mean age 50.4 years, 35% male) underwent coronary angiography and invasive testing for coronary microvascular dysfunction, of which 129 (8.8%) had type 2 diabetes. Fifty-one (39.5%) had an abnormal %ΔCBFAch and 49 (38.0%) had an abnormal CFRAdn Ratio. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular or diabetic medication use did not vary significantly between groups. Females with an abnormal CFRAdn Ratio or abnormal %ΔCBFAch had a significantly higher HbA1c compared to patients with a normal CFRAdn Ratio or %ΔCBFAch respectively: HbA1c % (standard deviation) 7.4 (2.1) vs. 6.5 (1.1), p = 0.035 and 7.3 (1.9) vs. 6.4 (1.2), p = 0.022, respectively. Female patients with an abnormal CFRAdn Ratio had significantly higher fasting serum glucose concentrations compared to those with a normal CFRAdn Ratio: fasting serum glucose mg/dL (standard deviation) 144.4 (55.6) vs. 121.9 (28.1), p = 0.035. This was not observed in men. Amongst female diabetics, a higher HbA1c was significantly associated with any coronary microvascular dysfunction both in a univariate and multivariate analysis: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.69 (1.01-2.86) p = 0.049; and a fasting serum glucose > 140 mg/dL was significantly associated with an abnormal CFRAdn Ratio, 4.28 (1.43-12.81). Conclusion: Poor glycemic control is associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction amongst female diabetics presenting with chest pain and non-obstructive CAD. These findings highlight the importance of sex specific risk stratification models and treatment strategies when managing cardiovascular risk amongst diabetics. Further studies are required to identify additional risk prevention tools and therapies targeting microvascular dysfunction as an integrated index of cardiovascular risk.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine