The influence of gender on psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) diagnosis was examined retrospectively in 439 subjects undergoing video-EEG (vEEG) for spell classification, of whom 142 women and 42 men had confirmed PNES. The epileptologist's predicted diagnosis was correct in 72% overall. Confirmed epilepsy was correctly predicted in 94% men and 88% women. In contrast, confirmed PNES was accurately predicted in 86% women versus 61% men (p = 0.003). Sex-based differences in likelihood of an indeterminate admission were not observed for predicted epilepsy or physiologic events, but were for predicted PNES (39% men, 12% women, p = 0.0002). More frequent failure to record spells in men than women with predicted PNES was not explained by spell frequency, duration of monitoring, age, medication use, or personality profile. PNES are not only less common in men, but also more challenging to recognize in the clinic, and even when suspected more difficult to confirm with vEEG.
- Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure
- Video-EEG monitoring
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Behavioral Neuroscience