Cardiovascular disease (CVD) disproportionately affects older adults. It is expected that by 2030, one in five people in the United States will be older than 65 years. Individuals with CVD now live longer due, in part, to current prevention and treatment approaches. Addressing the needs of older individuals requires inclusion and assessment of frailty, multimorbidity, depression, quality of life, and cognition. Despite the conceptual relevance and prognostic importance of these factors, they are seldom formally evaluated in clinical practice. Further, although these constructs coexist with traditional cardiovascular risk factors, their exact prevalence and prognostic impact remain largely unknown. Development of the right decision tools, which include these variables, can facilitate patient-centered care for older adults. These gaps in knowledge hinder optimal care use and underscore the need to rigorously evaluate the optimal constructs for providing care to older adults. In this review, we describe available tools to examine the prognostic role of age-related factors in patients with CVD.
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