We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 716 patients with multiple myeloma who were mobilized using CY and growth factor (n = 370) or growth factor alone (n = 346) before SCT. Patients receiving CY had higher stem cell yields than the growth factor only group (median number of apheresis sessions needed to achieve stem cell collection goals, two vs four sessions, respectively (P = 0.001)). However, patients treated with CY required more time for engraftment of platelets and neutrophils (P < 0.001 for both). For patients receiving CY, 75% achieved engraftment (defined as a platelet count of 50 × 109/l) by day 39, whereas 75% of patients not receiving CY achieved engraftment by day 18. Similar results were observed for neutrophil engraftment. These differences did not affect the duration of hospitalization, but patients treated with CY had a higher incidence of post transplant nonstaphylococcal bacteremia. For CY-mobilized patients, considerably faster platelet engraftment (5 fewer days) resulted if stem cell reinfusion occurred more than 30 days after the first apheresis session. Our data suggested that CY damaged the microenvironment and slowed engraftment. By lengthening the period between the completion of apheresis and stem cell reinfusion, the microenvironment may recover and result in faster engraftment.
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