Purpose: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) functions within the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway as a critical modulator of cell survival. Methods: The mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus (CCI-779) was combined with chemoradiotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients in a dose-escalation phase I trial. The first 12 patients were treated with CCI-779 combined with radiation/temozolomide and adjuvant temozolomide. A second cohort of 13 patients was treated with concurrent CCI-779/radiation/temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide monotherapy. Results: Concomitant and adjuvant CCI-779 was associated with a high rate (3 of 12 patients) of grade 4/5 infections. By limiting CCI-779 treatment to the radiation/temozolomide phase and using antibiotic prophylaxis, the rate of infections was reduced, although 2 of 13 patients developed exacerbation of pre-existing fungal or viral infections. Dose-limiting toxicities were observed in 2 of 13 patients with this modified schedule. Weekly CCI-779 (50 mg/week) combined with radiation/temozolomide is the recommended phase II dose and schedule. The immune profile of patients in the second cohort was assessed before, during, and after CCI-779 therapy. There was robust suppression of helper and cytotoxic T cells, B cells, natural killer, cells and elevation of regulatory T cells during CCI-779/radiation/temozolomide therapy with recovery to baseline levels during adjuvant temozolomide of cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and regulatory T cells. Conclusions: The increased infection rate observed with CCI-779 combined with chemoradiotherapy in GBM was reduced with antibiotic prophylaxis and by limiting the duration of CCI-779 therapy. The combined suppressive effects of CCI-779 and temozolomide therapy on discrete immune compartments likely contributed to the increased infectious risks observed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research