Colon Surgery Risk With Corticosteroids Versus Immunomodulators or Biologics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients With Clostridium difficile Infection

Dipesh Solanky, Darrell Spencer Pardi, Edward Vincent Loftus, Jr, Sahil Khanna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an independent risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and CDI often precipitates IBD exacerbation. Because CDI cannot be distinguished clinically from an IBD exacerbation, management is difficult. We aimed to assess factors associated with adverse outcomes in IBD with CDI, including the role of escalating or de-escalating IBD therapy and CDI treatment. METHODS: Records for patients with IBD and CDI from 2008 to 2013 were abstracted for variables including IBD severity before CDI diagnosis, CDI management, subsequent IBD exacerbation, CDI recurrence, and colon surgery. Colon surgery was defined as resection of any colonic segment within 1 year after CDI diagnosis. RESULTS: We included 137 IBD patients (median age, 46 years; 55% women): 70 with ulcerative colitis (51%), 63 with Crohn's disease (46%), and 4 with indeterminate colitis (3%). Overall, 70% of CDIs were mild-moderate, 14% were severe, and 15% were severe-complicated. Clostridium difficile infection treatment choice did not vary by infection severity (P = 0.27). Corticosteroid escalation (odds ratio [OR], 5.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03-17.44) was a positive predictor of colon surgery within 1 year after CDI; older age (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.44) was a negative predictor. Modifying the corticosteroid regimen did not affect CDI recurrence or risk of future IBD exacerbation. Adverse outcomes did not differ with CDI antibiotic regimens or biologic or immunomodulator regimen modification. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid escalation for IBD during CDI was associated with higher risk of colon surgery. Type of CDI treatment did not influence IBD outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate optimal management in this high-risk population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)610-619
Number of pages10
JournalInflammatory bowel diseases
Volume25
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 21 2019

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Clostridium Infections
Clostridium difficile
Immunologic Factors
Biological Products
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Colon
Disease Progression
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Recurrence

Keywords

  • Clostridium difficile
  • biologic therapy
  • colectomy
  • immunomodulator therapy
  • inflammatory bowel disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Colon Surgery Risk With Corticosteroids Versus Immunomodulators or Biologics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients With Clostridium difficile Infection. / Solanky, Dipesh; Pardi, Darrell Spencer; Loftus, Jr, Edward Vincent; Khanna, Sahil.

In: Inflammatory bowel diseases, Vol. 25, No. 3, 21.02.2019, p. 610-619.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an independent risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and CDI often precipitates IBD exacerbation. Because CDI cannot be distinguished clinically from an IBD exacerbation, management is difficult. We aimed to assess factors associated with adverse outcomes in IBD with CDI, including the role of escalating or de-escalating IBD therapy and CDI treatment. METHODS: Records for patients with IBD and CDI from 2008 to 2013 were abstracted for variables including IBD severity before CDI diagnosis, CDI management, subsequent IBD exacerbation, CDI recurrence, and colon surgery. Colon surgery was defined as resection of any colonic segment within 1 year after CDI diagnosis. RESULTS: We included 137 IBD patients (median age, 46 years; 55{\%} women): 70 with ulcerative colitis (51{\%}), 63 with Crohn's disease (46{\%}), and 4 with indeterminate colitis (3{\%}). Overall, 70{\%} of CDIs were mild-moderate, 14{\%} were severe, and 15{\%} were severe-complicated. Clostridium difficile infection treatment choice did not vary by infection severity (P = 0.27). Corticosteroid escalation (odds ratio [OR], 5.94; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 2.03-17.44) was a positive predictor of colon surgery within 1 year after CDI; older age (OR, 0.09; 95{\%} CI, 0.01-0.44) was a negative predictor. Modifying the corticosteroid regimen did not affect CDI recurrence or risk of future IBD exacerbation. Adverse outcomes did not differ with CDI antibiotic regimens or biologic or immunomodulator regimen modification. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid escalation for IBD during CDI was associated with higher risk of colon surgery. Type of CDI treatment did not influence IBD outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate optimal management in this high-risk population.",
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N2 - BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an independent risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and CDI often precipitates IBD exacerbation. Because CDI cannot be distinguished clinically from an IBD exacerbation, management is difficult. We aimed to assess factors associated with adverse outcomes in IBD with CDI, including the role of escalating or de-escalating IBD therapy and CDI treatment. METHODS: Records for patients with IBD and CDI from 2008 to 2013 were abstracted for variables including IBD severity before CDI diagnosis, CDI management, subsequent IBD exacerbation, CDI recurrence, and colon surgery. Colon surgery was defined as resection of any colonic segment within 1 year after CDI diagnosis. RESULTS: We included 137 IBD patients (median age, 46 years; 55% women): 70 with ulcerative colitis (51%), 63 with Crohn's disease (46%), and 4 with indeterminate colitis (3%). Overall, 70% of CDIs were mild-moderate, 14% were severe, and 15% were severe-complicated. Clostridium difficile infection treatment choice did not vary by infection severity (P = 0.27). Corticosteroid escalation (odds ratio [OR], 5.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03-17.44) was a positive predictor of colon surgery within 1 year after CDI; older age (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.44) was a negative predictor. Modifying the corticosteroid regimen did not affect CDI recurrence or risk of future IBD exacerbation. Adverse outcomes did not differ with CDI antibiotic regimens or biologic or immunomodulator regimen modification. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid escalation for IBD during CDI was associated with higher risk of colon surgery. Type of CDI treatment did not influence IBD outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate optimal management in this high-risk population.

AB - BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an independent risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and CDI often precipitates IBD exacerbation. Because CDI cannot be distinguished clinically from an IBD exacerbation, management is difficult. We aimed to assess factors associated with adverse outcomes in IBD with CDI, including the role of escalating or de-escalating IBD therapy and CDI treatment. METHODS: Records for patients with IBD and CDI from 2008 to 2013 were abstracted for variables including IBD severity before CDI diagnosis, CDI management, subsequent IBD exacerbation, CDI recurrence, and colon surgery. Colon surgery was defined as resection of any colonic segment within 1 year after CDI diagnosis. RESULTS: We included 137 IBD patients (median age, 46 years; 55% women): 70 with ulcerative colitis (51%), 63 with Crohn's disease (46%), and 4 with indeterminate colitis (3%). Overall, 70% of CDIs were mild-moderate, 14% were severe, and 15% were severe-complicated. Clostridium difficile infection treatment choice did not vary by infection severity (P = 0.27). Corticosteroid escalation (odds ratio [OR], 5.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03-17.44) was a positive predictor of colon surgery within 1 year after CDI; older age (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.44) was a negative predictor. Modifying the corticosteroid regimen did not affect CDI recurrence or risk of future IBD exacerbation. Adverse outcomes did not differ with CDI antibiotic regimens or biologic or immunomodulator regimen modification. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid escalation for IBD during CDI was associated with higher risk of colon surgery. Type of CDI treatment did not influence IBD outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate optimal management in this high-risk population.

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