CNS aquaporin-4 autoimmunity in children

A. McKeon, V. A. Lennon, T. Lotze, S. Tenenbaum, J. M. Ness, M. Rensel, N. L. Kuntz, J. P. Fryer, H. Homburger, J. Hunter, B. G. Weinshenker, K. Krecke, C. F. Lucchinetti, S. J. Pittock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

233 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: In adult patients, autoantibodies targeting the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are a biomarker for a spectrum of CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders with predilection for optic nerves and spinal cord (neuromyelitis optica [NMO]). Here we describe the neurologic, serologic, and radiographic findings associated with CNS AQP4 autoimmunity in childhood. Methods: A total of 88 consecutive seropositive children were identified through service evaluation for NMO-IgG. Sera of 75 were tested for coexisting autoantibodies. Clinical information was available for 58. Results: Forty-two patients (73%) were non-Caucasian, and 20 (34%) had African ethnicity. Median age at symptom onset was 12 years (range 4-18). Fifty-seven (98%) had attacks of either optic neuritis (n = 48; 83%) or transverse myelitis (n = 45; 78%), or both. Twenty-six (45%) had episodic cerebral symptoms (encephalopathy, ophthalmoparesis, ataxia, seizures, intractable vomiting, or hiccups). Thirty-eight (68%) had brain MRI abnormalities, predominantly involving periventricular areas (in descending order of frequency): the medulla, supratentorial and infraten-torial white matter, midbrain, cerebellum, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Additional autoantibodies were detected in 57 of 75 patients (76%), and 16 of 38 (42%) had a coexisting autoimmune disorder recorded (systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren syndrome, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease). Attacks were recurrent in 54 patients (93%; median follow-up, 12 months). Forty-three of 48 patients (90%) had residual disability: 26 (54%) visual impairment and 21 (44%) motor deficits (median Expanded Disability Status Scale 4.0 at 12 months). Conclusions: Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity is a distinctive recurrent and widespread inflammatory CNS disease in children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-100
Number of pages8
JournalNeurology
Volume71
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 8 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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