The goal of this study was to investigate the frequency of use of light-chain variable region (IGVL) genes among patients with systemic (AL S ) and localized (AL L ) amyloidosis and to assess for associations between IGVL gene usage and organ tropism. We evaluated clinic charts from 821 AL patients seen at the Mayo Clinic who had bone marrow, fat pad, and solid organ tissue samples typed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We identified 701 patients with AL S and 120 with AL L . Overall, we were able to identify an IGVL gene in 87 (72%) patients with AL L and 573 (82%) patients with AL S . When compared with AL L , LV6-57 was more common, whereas KV3-20 and heavy-chain codeposition were less common in AL S . In this large series of AL S , characteristics particular to specific genotypes became apparent. LV6-57 patients were more likely to have renal involvement and to harbor a translocation 11;14. LV3-01 patients were less likely to have advanced cardiac disease and renal involvement. LV2-14 patients were more likely to have peripheral nerve involvement, an intact circulating immunoglobulin, and lower circulating dFLC. LV1-44 patients were more likely to have cardiac involvement. KV1-33 patients had more liver involvement and higher circulating dFLC. Finally, KV1-05 was associated with inferior overall survival but not independently of cardiac stage. IGVL gene usage appears to provide clues about disease pathophysiology and tissue tropism. LC-MS is a high-throughput and low-resource technique that can be used to identify IGVL gene from clinical tissue specimens.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology