Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the most common cause of intractable focal epilepsy in children, in whom seizures are most commonly pharmacoresistant from onset. This review summarizes the current understandings of the epidemiology, natural history, and the proposed mechanisms of epileptogenisis in FCD. Advances in neuroimaging techniques have enhanced the recognition of this pathology, which can be subtle. Illustrative neurophysiology and imaging examples are provided to help the clinicians identify diagnostic evidence of suspected FCD. Given the refractory course to pharmacologic management, alternative options such as ketogenic diet, resective surgery or neuromodulation can be considered. Recognition of FCD pathology in children with early onset epilepsy should prompt timely evaluations for resective surgery, which may render a significant number of patients seizure-free and improve neurocognitive outcome.
- Epilepsy surgery
- Focal cortical dysplasia
- Medically refractory epilepsy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology