The causes of graft loss in liver transplant recipients with a graft functioning for more than 1 year post-transplant were analyzed. Of 500 liver transplants in 434 patients, 362 grafts were functioning for more than 1 year. After 1 year, 42 grafts were later lost (11.6%). Thirty-three grafts were lost by death and 9 retransplants were done with 8 patients. Of the grafts lost by death, 12 had no evidence of dysfunction. The actuarial 2-and 5-year graft survival in liver transplantation recipients with functioning grafts for more than 1 year was 91 and 83%, respectively. The graft loss rate was 3.4 times higher during the 2nd year post-transplant than during 2-5 years post-transplant. The most common causes of graft loss were chronic rejection (26.2%), recurrent hepatitis (23.8%), arterial thrombosis/stenosis (11.9%) and recurrent malignancy (9.5%). No graft was lost from acute rejection. There was no difference in timing of the graft lost between the different causes. The pretransplant diagnosis of hepatitis B, chronic rejection, and malignancy was associated with the highest frequency of late graft lost. In conclusion, long-term graft survival is good after liver transplantation in patients with a functioning graft for more than 1 year. The main causes of graft loss were chronic rejection and recurrent hepatitis. Prevention and treatment for these conditions may further improve the results after liver transplantation.
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