Casein kinase II induced polymerization of soluble TDP-43 into filaments is inhibited by heat shock proteins

Yari Carlomagno, Yongjie Zhang, Mary Davis, Wen Lang Lin, Casey Cook, Judy Dunmore, William Tay, Kyle Menkosky, Xiangkun Cao, Leonard Petrucelli, Michael DeTure

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Trans-activation Response DNA-binding Protein-43 (TDP-43) lesions are observed in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-TDP) and 25-50% of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) cases. These abnormal protein inclusions are composed of either amorphous TDP-43 aggregates or highly ordered filaments. The filamentous TDP-43 accumulations typically contain clean 10-12 nm filaments though wider 18-20 nm coated filaments may be observed. The TDP-43 present within these lesions is phosphorylated, truncated and ubiquitinated, and these modifications appear to be abnormal as they are linked to both a cellular heat shock response and microglial activation. The mechanisms associated with this abnormal TDP-43 accumulation are believed to result in a loss of TDP-43 function, perhaps due to the post-translational modifications or resulting from physical sequestration of the TDP-43. The formation of TDP-43 inclusions involves cellular translocation and conversion of TDP-43 into fibrillogenic forms, but the ability of these accumulations to sequester normal TDP-43 and propagate this behavior between neurons pathologically is mostly inferred. The lack of methodology to produce soluble full length TDP-43 and recapitulate this polymerization into filaments as observed in disease has limited our understanding of these pathogenic cascades. Results: The protocols described here generate soluble, full-length and untagged TDP-43 allowing for a direct assessment of the impact of various posttranslational modifications on TDP-43 function. We demonstrate that Casein Kinase II (CKII) promotes the polymerization of this soluble TDP-43 into 10 nm diameter filaments that resemble the most common TDP-43 structures observed in disease. Furthermore, these filaments are recognized as abnormal by Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) which can inhibit TDP-43 polymerization or directly promote TDP-43 filament depolymerization. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate CKII induces polymerization of soluble TDP-43 into filaments and Hsp90 promotes TDP-43 filament depolymerization. These findings provide rational for potential therapeutic intervention at these points in TDP-43 proteinopathies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere90452
JournalPloS one
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 4 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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