Case-control study of simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States

Eric A. Engels, Raphael P. Viscidi, Denise A. Galloway, Joseph J. Carter, James R Cerhan, Scott Davis, Wendy Cozen, Richard K. Severson, Silvia de Sanjose, Joanne S. Colt, Patricia Hartge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Recent studies have reported detection of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA in tumor tissues from 15%-43% of U.S. non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. SV40 accidentally contaminated U.S. poliovirus vaccines that were widely administered from 1955 through 1962. However, epidemiologic data linking SV40 with NHL are lacking. Methods: We obtained serum samples from 724 incident NHL case patients and 622 control subjects from a population-based U.S. case-control study. SV40 serostatus was analyzed by two independent laboratories (designated A and B) using similar virus-like particle (VLP) enzyme immunoassays. Associations with serostatus were assessed with logistic regression, adjusting for sex, race, birth year, and study site. VLPs for the human polyomaviruses; BK and JC were used in competitive inhibition experiments to assess the specificity of SV40 reactivity. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results: SV40 antibody results from the two laboratories were correlated (R = 0.59; P<.001). Laboratories A and B detected SV40 seropositivity in 7.2% and 9.8% of NHL case patients, respectively, and in 10.5% and 9.6% of control subjects, respectively. SV40 seropositivity was not associated with increased NHL risk (laboratory A: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.46 to 1.00; laboratory B: adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.71 to 1.47). SV40 seropositivity was not associated with NHLs of any specific histology or site. Among subjects born before 1963, 1.0%-1.6% showed SV40-specific reactivity, i.e., SV40 reactivity confirmed in competitive inhibition experiments, whereas (based on limited data) none born subsequently demonstrated SV40-specific reactivity. Conclusions: In persons born before 1963, the presence of SV40-specific antibodies, although rare, could reflect exposure to SV40-contaminated vaccines. Nevertheless, NHL risk was unrelated to serologic evidence of SV40 exposure or infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1368-1374
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the National Cancer Institute
Volume96
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2004

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Simian virus 40
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Case-Control Studies
Poliovirus Vaccines
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Polyomavirus
Antibodies
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Virion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Engels, E. A., Viscidi, R. P., Galloway, D. A., Carter, J. J., Cerhan, J. R., Davis, S., ... Hartge, P. (2004). Case-control study of simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 96(18), 1368-1374. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djh266

Case-control study of simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States. / Engels, Eric A.; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Galloway, Denise A.; Carter, Joseph J.; Cerhan, James R; Davis, Scott; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Colt, Joanne S.; Hartge, Patricia.

In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 96, No. 18, 15.09.2004, p. 1368-1374.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Engels, EA, Viscidi, RP, Galloway, DA, Carter, JJ, Cerhan, JR, Davis, S, Cozen, W, Severson, RK, de Sanjose, S, Colt, JS & Hartge, P 2004, 'Case-control study of simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States', Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 96, no. 18, pp. 1368-1374. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djh266
Engels, Eric A. ; Viscidi, Raphael P. ; Galloway, Denise A. ; Carter, Joseph J. ; Cerhan, James R ; Davis, Scott ; Cozen, Wendy ; Severson, Richard K. ; de Sanjose, Silvia ; Colt, Joanne S. ; Hartge, Patricia. / Case-control study of simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States. In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2004 ; Vol. 96, No. 18. pp. 1368-1374.
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abstract = "Background: Recent studies have reported detection of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA in tumor tissues from 15{\%}-43{\%} of U.S. non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. SV40 accidentally contaminated U.S. poliovirus vaccines that were widely administered from 1955 through 1962. However, epidemiologic data linking SV40 with NHL are lacking. Methods: We obtained serum samples from 724 incident NHL case patients and 622 control subjects from a population-based U.S. case-control study. SV40 serostatus was analyzed by two independent laboratories (designated A and B) using similar virus-like particle (VLP) enzyme immunoassays. Associations with serostatus were assessed with logistic regression, adjusting for sex, race, birth year, and study site. VLPs for the human polyomaviruses; BK and JC were used in competitive inhibition experiments to assess the specificity of SV40 reactivity. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results: SV40 antibody results from the two laboratories were correlated (R = 0.59; P<.001). Laboratories A and B detected SV40 seropositivity in 7.2{\%} and 9.8{\%} of NHL case patients, respectively, and in 10.5{\%} and 9.6{\%} of control subjects, respectively. SV40 seropositivity was not associated with increased NHL risk (laboratory A: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.68, 95{\%} confidence interval [CI] = 0.46 to 1.00; laboratory B: adjusted OR = 1.02, 95{\%} CI = 0.71 to 1.47). SV40 seropositivity was not associated with NHLs of any specific histology or site. Among subjects born before 1963, 1.0{\%}-1.6{\%} showed SV40-specific reactivity, i.e., SV40 reactivity confirmed in competitive inhibition experiments, whereas (based on limited data) none born subsequently demonstrated SV40-specific reactivity. Conclusions: In persons born before 1963, the presence of SV40-specific antibodies, although rare, could reflect exposure to SV40-contaminated vaccines. Nevertheless, NHL risk was unrelated to serologic evidence of SV40 exposure or infection.",
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AU - Carter, Joseph J.

AU - Cerhan, James R

AU - Davis, Scott

AU - Cozen, Wendy

AU - Severson, Richard K.

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AU - Colt, Joanne S.

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N2 - Background: Recent studies have reported detection of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA in tumor tissues from 15%-43% of U.S. non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. SV40 accidentally contaminated U.S. poliovirus vaccines that were widely administered from 1955 through 1962. However, epidemiologic data linking SV40 with NHL are lacking. Methods: We obtained serum samples from 724 incident NHL case patients and 622 control subjects from a population-based U.S. case-control study. SV40 serostatus was analyzed by two independent laboratories (designated A and B) using similar virus-like particle (VLP) enzyme immunoassays. Associations with serostatus were assessed with logistic regression, adjusting for sex, race, birth year, and study site. VLPs for the human polyomaviruses; BK and JC were used in competitive inhibition experiments to assess the specificity of SV40 reactivity. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results: SV40 antibody results from the two laboratories were correlated (R = 0.59; P<.001). Laboratories A and B detected SV40 seropositivity in 7.2% and 9.8% of NHL case patients, respectively, and in 10.5% and 9.6% of control subjects, respectively. SV40 seropositivity was not associated with increased NHL risk (laboratory A: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.46 to 1.00; laboratory B: adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.71 to 1.47). SV40 seropositivity was not associated with NHLs of any specific histology or site. Among subjects born before 1963, 1.0%-1.6% showed SV40-specific reactivity, i.e., SV40 reactivity confirmed in competitive inhibition experiments, whereas (based on limited data) none born subsequently demonstrated SV40-specific reactivity. Conclusions: In persons born before 1963, the presence of SV40-specific antibodies, although rare, could reflect exposure to SV40-contaminated vaccines. Nevertheless, NHL risk was unrelated to serologic evidence of SV40 exposure or infection.

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