Immunoassays with a monoclonal antibody (A-1) detect a prevalent dimorphism in plasma coagulation factor IX. The antibody was shown to react with a dimorphic segment of the normal factor IX sequence as follows. First, A-1 bound to isolated activation peptide (residues 146 through 180) prepared from activated factor IX from a normal plasma pool. Second, binding of recombinant factor IXs with A-1 or factor IX from normal individuals was strong only when they had Threonine (Thr) at position 148; factor IXs with the Alanine (Ala) allele at that position were far less reactive. Third, immunoblot reactivity of Escherichia coli fusion proteins containing known segments of the factor IX sequence restricted the epitope to residues 147 through 153. In 120 hemophilia B pedigrees, the Ala immunoassay allele frequency was 0.19 and did not differ from the Ala frequency in normal males. In 22 of 49 families, immunoassay testing was informative for classification of obligate or possible carriers. In one large family, 4 obligate carriers were heterozygous for the dimorphism and 3 of their 7 daughters were classified as carriers. In other families, when the affected member had < 1 nmol/L factor IX antigen, heterozygosity for Thr/Ala alleles excluded the carrier state even when DNA studies were not informative. Strong linkage disequilibrium of Thr/Ala alleles with the common Taq1 DNA polymorphism was found. Nineteen of 75 normal and hemophilic factor IX genes had the 1,3-kilobase (kb) fragment and coded for the Ala allele; the rest had the 1,8-kb fragment and coded for Thr. In selected families, the A-1 immunoassay is an inexpensive and rapid method to confirm and supplement restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of DNA for carrier testing.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology