Cachexia: A new definition

William J. Evans, John E. Morley, Josep Argilés, Connie Bales, Vickie Baracos, Denis Guttridge, Aminah Jatoi, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Herbert Lochs, Giovanni Mantovani, Daniel Marks, William E. Mitch, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Armine Najand, Piotr Ponikowski, Filippo Rossi Fanelli, Morrie Schambelan, Annemie Schols, Michael Schuster, David Thomas & 2 others Robert Wolfe, Stefan D. Anker

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

  • 862 Citations

Abstract

On December 13th and 14th a group of scientists and clinicians met in Washington, DC, for the cachexia consensus conference. At the present time, there is no widely agreed upon operational definition of cachexia. The lack of a definition accepted by clinician and researchers has limited identification and treatment of cachectic patient as well as the development and approval of potential therapeutic agents. The definition that emerged is: "cachexia, is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The prominent clinical feature of cachexia is weight loss in adults (corrected for fluid retention) or growth failure in children (excluding endocrine disorders). Anorexia, inflammation, insulin resistance and increased muscle protein breakdown are frequently associated with cachexia. Cachexia is distinct from starvation, age-related loss of muscle mass, primary depression, malabsorption and hyperthyroidism and is associated with increased morbidity. While this definition has not been tested in epidemiological or intervention studies, a consensus operational definition provides an opportunity for increased research.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages793-799
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Nutrition
Volume27
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cachexia
Muscles
Therapeutics
Muscle Proteins
Anorexia
Hyperthyroidism
Starvation
Insulin Resistance
Weight Loss
Fats
Research Personnel
Inflammation
Morbidity
Growth
Research

Keywords

  • Anorexia
  • Inflammation
  • Involuntary weight loss
  • Muscle wasting
  • Wasting disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Evans, W. J., Morley, J. E., Argilés, J., Bales, C., Baracos, V., Guttridge, D., ... Anker, S. D. (2008). Cachexia: A new definition. Clinical Nutrition, 27(6), 793-799. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2008.06.013

Cachexia : A new definition. / Evans, William J.; Morley, John E.; Argilés, Josep; Bales, Connie; Baracos, Vickie; Guttridge, Denis; Jatoi, Aminah; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Lochs, Herbert; Mantovani, Giovanni; Marks, Daniel; Mitch, William E.; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Najand, Armine; Ponikowski, Piotr; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Schambelan, Morrie; Schols, Annemie; Schuster, Michael; Thomas, David; Wolfe, Robert; Anker, Stefan D.

In: Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 27, No. 6, 12.2008, p. 793-799.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Evans, WJ, Morley, JE, Argilés, J, Bales, C, Baracos, V, Guttridge, D, Jatoi, A, Kalantar-Zadeh, K, Lochs, H, Mantovani, G, Marks, D, Mitch, WE, Muscaritoli, M, Najand, A, Ponikowski, P, Rossi Fanelli, F, Schambelan, M, Schols, A, Schuster, M, Thomas, D, Wolfe, R & Anker, SD 2008, 'Cachexia: A new definition' Clinical Nutrition, vol 27, no. 6, pp. 793-799. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2008.06.013
Evans WJ, Morley JE, Argilés J, Bales C, Baracos V, Guttridge D et al. Cachexia: A new definition. Clinical Nutrition. 2008 Dec;27(6):793-799. Available from, DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2008.06.013
Evans, William J. ; Morley, John E. ; Argilés, Josep ; Bales, Connie ; Baracos, Vickie ; Guttridge, Denis ; Jatoi, Aminah ; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar ; Lochs, Herbert ; Mantovani, Giovanni ; Marks, Daniel ; Mitch, William E. ; Muscaritoli, Maurizio ; Najand, Armine ; Ponikowski, Piotr ; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo ; Schambelan, Morrie ; Schols, Annemie ; Schuster, Michael ; Thomas, David ; Wolfe, Robert ; Anker, Stefan D./ Cachexia : A new definition. In: Clinical Nutrition. 2008 ; Vol. 27, No. 6. pp. 793-799
@article{d45ac9de3b304543ba63e9cf9f90f97c,
title = "Cachexia: A new definition",
abstract = "On December 13th and 14th a group of scientists and clinicians met in Washington, DC, for the cachexia consensus conference. At the present time, there is no widely agreed upon operational definition of cachexia. The lack of a definition accepted by clinician and researchers has limited identification and treatment of cachectic patient as well as the development and approval of potential therapeutic agents. The definition that emerged is: {"}cachexia, is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The prominent clinical feature of cachexia is weight loss in adults (corrected for fluid retention) or growth failure in children (excluding endocrine disorders). Anorexia, inflammation, insulin resistance and increased muscle protein breakdown are frequently associated with cachexia. Cachexia is distinct from starvation, age-related loss of muscle mass, primary depression, malabsorption and hyperthyroidism and is associated with increased morbidity. While this definition has not been tested in epidemiological or intervention studies, a consensus operational definition provides an opportunity for increased research.",
keywords = "Anorexia, Inflammation, Involuntary weight loss, Muscle wasting, Wasting disease",
author = "Evans, {William J.} and Morley, {John E.} and Josep Argilés and Connie Bales and Vickie Baracos and Denis Guttridge and Aminah Jatoi and Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh and Herbert Lochs and Giovanni Mantovani and Daniel Marks and Mitch, {William E.} and Maurizio Muscaritoli and Armine Najand and Piotr Ponikowski and {Rossi Fanelli}, Filippo and Morrie Schambelan and Annemie Schols and Michael Schuster and David Thomas and Robert Wolfe and Anker, {Stefan D.}",
year = "2008",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1016/j.clnu.2008.06.013",
volume = "27",
pages = "793--799",
journal = "Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0261-5614",
publisher = "Churchill Livingstone",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cachexia

T2 - Clinical Nutrition

AU - Evans,William J.

AU - Morley,John E.

AU - Argilés,Josep

AU - Bales,Connie

AU - Baracos,Vickie

AU - Guttridge,Denis

AU - Jatoi,Aminah

AU - Kalantar-Zadeh,Kamyar

AU - Lochs,Herbert

AU - Mantovani,Giovanni

AU - Marks,Daniel

AU - Mitch,William E.

AU - Muscaritoli,Maurizio

AU - Najand,Armine

AU - Ponikowski,Piotr

AU - Rossi Fanelli,Filippo

AU - Schambelan,Morrie

AU - Schols,Annemie

AU - Schuster,Michael

AU - Thomas,David

AU - Wolfe,Robert

AU - Anker,Stefan D.

PY - 2008/12

Y1 - 2008/12

N2 - On December 13th and 14th a group of scientists and clinicians met in Washington, DC, for the cachexia consensus conference. At the present time, there is no widely agreed upon operational definition of cachexia. The lack of a definition accepted by clinician and researchers has limited identification and treatment of cachectic patient as well as the development and approval of potential therapeutic agents. The definition that emerged is: "cachexia, is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The prominent clinical feature of cachexia is weight loss in adults (corrected for fluid retention) or growth failure in children (excluding endocrine disorders). Anorexia, inflammation, insulin resistance and increased muscle protein breakdown are frequently associated with cachexia. Cachexia is distinct from starvation, age-related loss of muscle mass, primary depression, malabsorption and hyperthyroidism and is associated with increased morbidity. While this definition has not been tested in epidemiological or intervention studies, a consensus operational definition provides an opportunity for increased research.

AB - On December 13th and 14th a group of scientists and clinicians met in Washington, DC, for the cachexia consensus conference. At the present time, there is no widely agreed upon operational definition of cachexia. The lack of a definition accepted by clinician and researchers has limited identification and treatment of cachectic patient as well as the development and approval of potential therapeutic agents. The definition that emerged is: "cachexia, is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The prominent clinical feature of cachexia is weight loss in adults (corrected for fluid retention) or growth failure in children (excluding endocrine disorders). Anorexia, inflammation, insulin resistance and increased muscle protein breakdown are frequently associated with cachexia. Cachexia is distinct from starvation, age-related loss of muscle mass, primary depression, malabsorption and hyperthyroidism and is associated with increased morbidity. While this definition has not been tested in epidemiological or intervention studies, a consensus operational definition provides an opportunity for increased research.

KW - Anorexia

KW - Inflammation

KW - Involuntary weight loss

KW - Muscle wasting

KW - Wasting disease

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=55749085001&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=55749085001&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.clnu.2008.06.013

DO - 10.1016/j.clnu.2008.06.013

M3 - Article

VL - 27

SP - 793

EP - 799

JO - Clinical Nutrition

JF - Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0261-5614

IS - 6

ER -