Surgical team members are typically defined by professional roles. In many surgical teams, membership changes as staffing decisions are subject to considerations other than keeping surgical teams consistent. These considerations may include staffing patterns on the day of surgery and at the time of a surgical case. Teamwork skill training and safety culture have been emphasized, although much is known about the contribution to team performance from team consistency. We review the literature on cognitive and psychosocial benefits of consistent surgical teams. Although empirical evidence base for consistent surgical teams is lacking, we believe that the theoretical justifications may lay the groundwork for future research on the impact of deliberate staffing decisions by organizations, to complement the current emphasis on individual teamwork knowledge, skills and attitude. We also outline some of barriers based on our experience in our respective healthcare organizations.