Aims: The Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing with Predominant Central Sleep Apnoea by Adaptive Servo Ventilation in Patients with Heart Failure trial investigated the effects of adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) (vs. control) on outcomes of 1325 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and central sleep apnoea (CSA). The primary outcome (a composite of all-cause death or unplanned HF hospitalization) did not differ between the two groups. However, all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality were higher in the ASV group. Circulating biomarkers may help in better ascertain patients' risk, and this is the first study applying a large set of circulating biomarkers in patients with both HFrEF and CSA. Methods and results: Circulating protein-biomarkers (n = 276) ontologically involved in CV pathways, were studied in 749 (57% of the trial population) patients (biomarker substudy), to investigate their association with the study outcomes (primary outcome, CV death and all-cause death). The mean age was 69 ± 10 years, and > 90% were male. The groups (ASV vs. control and biomarker substudy vs. no biomarker) were well balanced. The “best” clinical prognostic model included male sex, systolic blood pressure < 120 mmHg, diabetes, loop diuretic, cardiac device, 6-min walking test distance, and N-terminal pro BNP as the strongest prognosticators. On top of the “best” clinical prognostic model, the biomarkers that significantly improved both the discrimination (c-index) and the net reclassification index (NRI) of the model were soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 for the primary outcome; neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 3 (Notch-3) for CV-death and all-cause death; and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) for all-cause death only. Conclusions: We studied 276 circulating biomarkers in patients with HFrEF and central sleep apnoea; of these biomarkers, three added significant prognostic information on top of the best clinical model: soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (primary outcome), Notch-3 (CV and all-cause death), and GDF-15 (all-cause death).
- Adaptive servo-ventilation
- Circulating biomarkers
- Heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine